All Library branches will be closed and the Mobile Library will not make its regularly scheduled stops on Monday, May 29, for Memorial Day.

The Library Center and Schweitzer Brentwood branch libraries will not have phone service Monday, May 29-Tuesday, May 30, due to maintenance. Please call (417) 865-1340 for assistance.

array
1
struct
ICON_URL /images/research/topics/science.gif
LABEL_ID 56
LABEL_NAME Science
LABEL_URL science.cfm

Related Resources

struct
ARTICLE
array
1
struct
ARTICLE_DATE October, 15 2009 00:01:00
ARTICLE_DATE_STR 20091015
ARTICLE_DESCRIPTION The 2009 Nobel Prizes in Science were recently announced in Physics, Chemistry and Medicine/Physiology.<br />
ARTICLE_ID 495
ARTICLE_STATUS published
ARTICLE_TEXT <p><b>The Nobel Prize for Medicine/Physiology </b>was awarded to Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.</p> <p><a href="http://www4.utsouthwestern.edu/cellbio/shay-wright/intro/facts/sw_facts.html">Telomeres</a> are small DNA sequences that cap the ends of much larger DNA strands. Elizabeth Blackburn and Jack Szostak performed research on these telomeres in the early 80s showing that these telomeres were responsible for <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/gtx/infomark.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&docType=IAC&type=retrieve&tabID=T004&prodId=AONE&docId=A195092264&userGroupName=springfield&version=1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale&infoPage=infoMarkPage">protecting chromosomes from degradation</a>* during cell division. Later research performed by Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol Grider led to the discovery of the enzyme telomerase, which is responsible for forming these telomeres.</p> <p>These discoveries are important for a number of reasons. Shortening of these telomeres causes <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/gtx/infomark.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&amp;docType=IAC&amp;type=retrieve&amp;tabID=T003&amp;prodId=ITOF&amp;docId=A20814438&amp;userGroupName=springfield&amp;version=1.0&amp;source=gale&amp;infoPage=infoMarkPage ">cell aging</a>* and high telomerase activity is linked to the propagation and <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/gtx/infomark.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&amp;docType=IAC&amp;type=retrieve&amp;tabID=T003&amp;prodId=ITOF&amp;docId=A17949272&amp;userGroupName=springfield&amp;version=1.0&amp;source=gale&amp;infoPage=infoMarkPage">long life of cancer cells</a>*. Additionally, some inherited diseases, such as <a href="http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/servlet/HWRC/hits?r=d&amp;origSearch=true&amp;bucket=ref&amp;rlt=1&amp;o=&amp;n=10&amp;searchTerm=2NTA&amp;l=d&amp;index=BA&amp;basicSearchOption=KE&amp;tcit=1_1_1_0_0_1&amp;c=1&amp;docNum=A169434570&amp;locID=springfield&amp;secondary=false&amp;t=RK&amp;s=1&amp;SU=aplastic+anemia">aplastic anemia</a>*, have been linked to telomerase defects. It can be seen that the studies of telomeres and the telomerase enzymes is extremely important and the contribution of these scientists is indeed significant.</p> <p>For more info about the 2009 Nobel Prize for Medicine/Physiology:</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2009/press.html">Official press release</a></li> <li><a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2009/adv.pdf">Advanced summary of the research</a> [pdf]</li> </ul> <p>Related books:</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://mobius.missouri.edu/search~S0/?searchtype=j&searcharg=9780262026222+&sortdropdown=-&SORT=D&extended=0&SUBMIT=Search&searchlimits=&searchorigarg=telizabeth+blackburn">Elizabeth Blackburn and the Story of Telomeres: Deciphering the Ends of DNA</a>, by Catherine Brady</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2031359~S1">DNA: The Secret of Life</a>, by James Watson &amp; Andrew Berry</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b1933455~S1">Introducing Genetics</a>, by Steve Jones &amp; Borin Van Loon</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2123421~S1">Jacob's Ladder: The History of the Human Genome</a>, by Henry Gee</li> </ul> <p><b>The Nobel Prize for Physics</b> was awarded to Charles Kao, William Boyle and George Smith for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication and the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit--the CCD sensor.</p> <p>Charles Kao began research on light transmission through glass fibers in the mid-60s. At this time light transmission through these fibers was extremely poor. Dr. Kao proposed that the key to increasing light transmission was increasing the chemical purity of the glass through the use of fused silica and quartz. The desired optical fibers were finally produced in the early 70s. This allowed for the development of <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/srcx/infomark.do?contentSet=GSRC&docType=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=DC&docId=EJ2644040918&userGroupName=springfield&version=1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale">fiber optic technology</a>* used today for data and light transmission. Currently, fiber optics form the basis for the world's communication network with over 600,000 miles of fiber optic cable run throughout the world.</p> <p>In 1969 William Boyle and George Smith began developing an idea for a memory device based on the <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/srcx/infomark.do?contentSet=GSRC&docType=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=DC&docId=EJ2644041758&userGroupName=springfield&version=1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale">photoelectric effect</a>*. What they eventually invented was the <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/srcx/infomark.do?contentSet=GSRC&docType=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=DC&docId=EJ1647500162&userGroupName=springfield&version=1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale">charge-coupled device (CCD)</a>*. This device allowed for light to be transfered to an electric signal, which can then be converted to digital information. This led directly to the creation of the digital camera and a large amount of other useful devices. The technology is used extensively in the field of astronomy and was even used on the Hubble space telescope.</p> <p>For more info about the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physics:</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2009/info.pdf">Brief summary of the technology</a> [pdf]</li> <li><a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2009/phyadv09.pdf">Detailed review of the scientific background</a>&nbsp;[pdf]</li> </ul> <p>Related books:</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2054320~S1">Color and Light in Nature</a>, by David K. Lynch & William Livingston</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2059722~S1">The Story of Light</a>, by Ben Bova</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2059722~S1">Introduction to Fiber Optics</a>, by John Crisp</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2059722~S1">City of Light: The Story of Fiber Optics</a>, by Jeff Hecht</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2382675~S1">Hubble: The Mirror in the Universe</a>, by Robin Kerrod & Carole Stott</li> </ul> <p><b>The Nobel Prize for Chemistry</b> was awarded to Venkatraman Ramakrishan, Thomas Steitz and Ada Yonath for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome.</p> <p><a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/srcx/infomark.do?contentSet=GSRC&docType=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=DC&docId=EJ1648500528&userGroupName=springfield&version=1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale">Ribosomes</a>* in cells are responsible for the synthesis of <a href="http://www.genome.gov/glossary.cfm?key=protein">proteins</a> using <a href="http://www.genome.gov/glossary.cfm?key=messenger%20rna%20(mrna)">messenger RNA</a> as a guide. In the late 70s Ada Yonath began her quest to determine the atomic structure of a ribosome using <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/srcx/infomark.do?contentSet=GSRC&docType=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=DC&docId=EJ2644042501&userGroupName=springfield&version=1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale">X-ray crystallography</a>* (made possible by the use of a CCD sensor). However, for X-ray crystallography to work successfully, near perfect crystals must be formed. Ada Yonath accomplished this in the early 1990s after almost 20 years of research. Even after this more information needed to be obtained before the structure could be determined. This key information was obtained by Thomas Stietz using <a href="http://0-find.galegroup.com.www.coolcat.org/srcx/infomark.do?contentSet=GSRC&docType=GSRC&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=DC&docId=EJ2644042021&userGroupName=springfield&version=1.0&searchType=BasicSearchForm&source=gale">electron microscopy</a>*. In the summer of 2000 Venkatraman Ramakrishan, Thomas Steitz and Ada Yonath were able to completely map out the atomic structure of a ribosome.</p> <p>This atomic structure is essential to learning how ribosomes function. Specifically, scientists are using this information to determine how ribosomes so efficiently synthesize proteins without error. Additionally, many antibiotics target the ribosomes of bacteria to stop the spread of these bacteria. By determining the structure of the targeted ribosomes scientists can better design new antibiotics that will be more effective.</p> <p>For more info about the 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry:</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2009/info.pdf">Summary of the research</a> [pdf]</li> <li><a href="http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2009/cheadv09.pdf">Detailed review of the scientific background</a> [pdf]</li> </ul> <p>Related books:</p> <ul> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b1968924~S1">The Stuff of Life: Profiles of the Molecules That Make us Tick</a>, by Eric P. Widmaier</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2054329~S1">That's the Way the Cookie Crumbles: 62 All-New Commentaries on the Fascinating Chemistry of Everyday Life</a>, by Joe Schwarcz</li> </ul> <p><b>Readings on other Nobel Laureates:</b></p> <ul> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b1248309~S1">Alfred Nobel: A Biography</a>, by Kenne Fant</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2324226~S1">Einstein: His Life and Universe</a>, by Walter Isaacson</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2316558~S1">Uncertainty: Einstein, Heisenberg, Bohr, and the Struggle For the Soul of Science</a>, by David Lindley</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2457151~S1">Deciphering the Cosmic Number: The Strange Friendship of Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Jung</a>, by Arthur I. Miller</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2440126~S1">Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by its most Brilliant Teacher</a>, by Richard P. Feynman</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2381705~S1">A Force of Nature: The Frontier Genius of Ernest Rutherford</a>, by Richard Reeves</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2108678~S1">Marie Curie: A Life</a>, by Susan Quinn</li> <li><a href="http://coolcat.org/record=b2357864~S1">The Immortalists: Charles Lindbergh, Dr. Alexis Carrel, and Their Daring Quest to Live Forever</a>, by David M. Friedman</li> </ul>
ARTICLE_TITLE 2009 Nobel Prizes in Science
ARTICLE_TYPE_ID 1
ARTICLE_TYPE_NAME Article
ARTICLE_YEAR_MONTH_STR 200910
NEW_USERID 2
PAGENAME article.cfm
USERFNAME Aleah
USERID 2
USERNAME undefined
USER_FNAME Aleah
USER_LOGIN aleahw
COMMENTS
array [empty]
LABELS
array
1
struct
ARTICLE_ID 495
GROUPDIR research
GROUP_ID 83
GROUP_NAME Research
ICON_URL /images/research/topics/science.gif
LABEL_ID 56
LABEL_NAME Science
LABEL_URL science.cfm
LINKS
array [empty]
Science

2009 Nobel Prizes in Science

The Nobel Prize for Medicine/Physiology was awarded to Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase.

Telomeres are small DNA sequences that cap the ends of much larger DNA strands. Elizabeth Blackburn and Jack Szostak performed research on these telomeres in the early 80s showing that these telomeres were responsible for protecting chromosomes from degradation* during cell division. Later research performed by Elizabeth Blackburn and Carol Grider led to the discovery of the enzyme telomerase, which is responsible for forming these telomeres.

These discoveries are important for a number of reasons. Shortening of these telomeres causes cell aging* and high telomerase activity is linked to the propagation and long life of cancer cells*. Additionally, some inherited diseases, such as aplastic anemia*, have been linked to telomerase defects. It can be seen that the studies of telomeres and the telomerase enzymes is extremely important and the contribution of these scientists is indeed significant.

For more info about the 2009 Nobel Prize for Medicine/Physiology:

Related books:

The Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Charles Kao, William Boyle and George Smith for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication and the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit--the CCD sensor.

Charles Kao began research on light transmission through glass fibers in the mid-60s. At this time light transmission through these fibers was extremely poor. Dr. Kao proposed that the key to increasing light transmission was increasing the chemical purity of the glass through the use of fused silica and quartz. The desired optical fibers were finally produced in the early 70s. This allowed for the development of fiber optic technology* used today for data and light transmission. Currently, fiber optics form the basis for the world's communication network with over 600,000 miles of fiber optic cable run throughout the world.

In 1969 William Boyle and George Smith began developing an idea for a memory device based on the photoelectric effect*. What they eventually invented was the charge-coupled device (CCD)*. This device allowed for light to be transfered to an electric signal, which can then be converted to digital information. This led directly to the creation of the digital camera and a large amount of other useful devices. The technology is used extensively in the field of astronomy and was even used on the Hubble space telescope.

For more info about the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physics:

Related books:

The Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Venkatraman Ramakrishan, Thomas Steitz and Ada Yonath for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome.

Ribosomes* in cells are responsible for the synthesis of proteins using messenger RNA as a guide. In the late 70s Ada Yonath began her quest to determine the atomic structure of a ribosome using X-ray crystallography* (made possible by the use of a CCD sensor). However, for X-ray crystallography to work successfully, near perfect crystals must be formed. Ada Yonath accomplished this in the early 1990s after almost 20 years of research. Even after this more information needed to be obtained before the structure could be determined. This key information was obtained by Thomas Stietz using electron microscopy*. In the summer of 2000 Venkatraman Ramakrishan, Thomas Steitz and Ada Yonath were able to completely map out the atomic structure of a ribosome.

This atomic structure is essential to learning how ribosomes function. Specifically, scientists are using this information to determine how ribosomes so efficiently synthesize proteins without error. Additionally, many antibiotics target the ribosomes of bacteria to stop the spread of these bacteria. By determining the structure of the targeted ribosomes scientists can better design new antibiotics that will be more effective.

For more info about the 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry:

Related books:

Readings on other Nobel Laureates:


* Library card required for use outside the Library

Find this article at

Free wi-fi

Friends of the library

The Library Foundation

Bookmark and Share

Sign up for the newsletter

© Springfield-Greene County Library District