History of Greene County, Missouri
1883

R. I. Holcombe, Editing Historian


Chapter 11
History of the County During 1862

Part 1
The Confederates Hold Undisputed Possession of the County — There is But One Cause and "Pap" Price is its Exponent — "Missouri Scrip," the Only Circulating Medium, and the "Volume of Currency Kept Equal to the Demands of Trade" — Re-Organization of Price's Army — Capt. Campbell's Company — The Soldiers in Camp — Gen. Price Retreats — End of Confederate Rule in Greene County — A Skirmish — Exit the Stars and Bars — Enter the Stars and Stripes — Curtis' Army Appears in Full Force, with Sigel at the Head — Effects of the Confederate Occupation — The "Rebels" Not Very Tidy Housekeepers — Order Restored in Springfield — Business Resumed, Religious Services Conducted, a Newspaper Established, The Streets "Policed," etc. — Organization of the Missouri State Militia — The 14th M. S. M. — Greene County's Part in the Battle of Pea Ridge — Casualties in and the Part Borne by Phelps' Regiment and the 24th Missouri Infantry —The Spring Time Comes — The Sword and the Plow — Miscellaneous Re-Opening of the Circuit and County Courts — Proceedings of Both — Matters in April and May — Shocking Tragedy in Springfield — Two Officers and One Woman Killed — The General Hospital at Springfield — Runaway Negroes — Apprehension of Fugitive Slaves — Deaths During 1862


1862—MILITARY OPERATIONS IN JANUARY AND FEBRUARY.

The first day of January, 1862, saw Greene county under complete Confederate domination. Almost the entire county comprised a grand military camp and its outposts. The operations of the civil law were entirely suspended. The people were compelled to admit that they were living in the Southern Confederacy, and no magistrates or other civil officers had been elected or appointed to serve them under the new order of things, and the old officers were either fugitives within the Federal lines, or powerless to act. Everything was done under marshal law. The provost marshal was the supreme arbiter of controversies between civilians, but "Old Pap" Price was resorted to on many occasions.

Property was seized for the use of the army wherever it could be found, but the citizens soon became adepts at hiding, and it is said that chickens and mules and horses, as well as men, learned to hide themselves when they discovered a foraging party approaching. Though it was the dead of winter many a horse was stabled out in the brush, many a wagon run into and hid in a hollow or ravine. Fremont, during his five days' reign, had made it particularly warm for the Confederate sympathizers in the matter of liberal foraging, and now the Confederates were retaliating upon the Unionists or "Yankee sympathizers," some of whom were arrested and made to give bonds for their good behavior toward the Confederacy, or else were sent to jail. [401]

"MISSOURI SCRIP."

Upon the capture of Lexington Gov. Jackson and Gen. Price seized about $40,000 in gold belonging to the branch bank of the State at that place, but this and other "forced loans" were soon exhausted and the Neosho Legislature authorized the issue of ten millions of dollars of "defence bonds" in sums of not less than $1 or greater than $500, all bonds of $5 and upwards to bear interest at 10 per cent. This species of money, called "Missouri scrip," was the current coin of the realm during the occupancy of Greene county by the army of Gen. Price. It was engraved and printed in New Orleans, by A. Malus, and the most of it was printed on the back of old uncut blank bills of Exchange and other imitations of bank note paper. The engraving was on wood, and both the engraving and printing were of inferior quality. Each "bond" or bill was signed by either Wm. Shields, Thos. H. Murray, or Henry W. Lyday, the commissioners appointed to issue the bonds. The following is a description of a $3 "Missouri scrip":

RE-ORGANIZATION OF PRICE'S ARMY.

Relieved by the inactivity of the Federal forces elsewhere, and encouraged by the promise of re-inforcements from Arkansas under McCulloch and McIntosh, Gen. Price had concentrated at Springfield with the intention of remaining here all winter. His army had become reduced considerably since the time of the capture of Lexington, when it numbered nearly 20,000, and now consisted of only about 15,000. The reduction was occasioned by desertions, furloughs, death, and transfers. At Springfield began the re-organization of the army. As fast as the term of enlistment of the Missouri State Guards expired they were induced to enter the regular Confederate States service. The original term of service of the State Guards was for six months, and the most of them had enlisted in June and July; in December and January, therefore, their times had expired and the most of them were enlisted in the regular Confederate army for three years, or during the war.

In the camps at Springfield, during the month of January, a great deal of re-organizing was done. Day after day was spent in drumming for recruits and in completing or attempting to complete the organization of companies and regiments. Campbell's Greene county company dated its service from the 11th of June, 1861, and its time expired in December.1 It was prompt to enlist in the Confederate service.

CAPT. CAMPBELL'S COMPANY.

The company alluded to in these pages as Capt. Dick Campbell's deserves fuller mention than can be made of it here. It was one of the best that served under the flag of the stars and bars. The company was first organized in May, 1861, under Gov. Jackson's military bill for service in the Missouri State Guard. The first organization was effected at the head of Clear Creek, near Springfield, as before mentioned.

Leonidas St. Clair Campbell (called "Dick") was chosen captain; James McSpadden, 1st lieutenant; Thomas Weaver, 2d lieutenant; Ben Hardin, 3d lieutenant; John A. Blanchard, orderly sergeant. The company numbered about 126 men. It was armed chiefly with double-barreled shot-guns and revolvers, although some of the men had carbines and rifles. [402-403]

Dr. A. S. H. Boyd, now of Carrsville, Ky., was a member of Campbell's company and served through the war, coming to Missouri from California to fight for his native South. Since the foregoing was put in type the doctor writes that the original company was composed of a squad recruited by L. S. Campbell, in the neighborhood of Ash Grove, and a squad recruited by Col. L. A. Campbell. Some of the members of the old original company were Thompson Brown, Sam J. Campbell, Rev. P. S. Wilkes (afterwards a member of the Confederate Congress), Geo. W. Jones, James Jones, T. C. Frazier, Fayette Frazier, Wm. Butler, Marion Fulbright, James Blakey, Christopher Bodenhammer, John Weatherford, John Thaxton (killed at Corinth,), Henry Parbury, Penn Wilson, Ned White, Louis Brashears and A. S. H. Boyd.

Soon after its organization Capt. Campbell's command left Greene county, there being too many Union Home Guards here, and it was not desirable to fight against old neighbors and friends. It went in June into the southern part of Taney county, or just into Arkansas, where it camped two weeks or more. Then it marched to Gen. Price on the Cowskin prairie, McDonald county. Here it joined the Missouri army and accompanied it to Cassville, from thence to Crane creek, and on to Dug Springs and Wilson's creek. From Cassville to Wilson's creek the company was in the advance guard of Gen. Rains' division. At the Dug Springs fight the company was engaged and in the retreat one of the members, Fulbright, a young man, fleshy and plethoric, had his horse shot. Running on foot to escape, he became overheated or was sunstruck and died.2 W. J. Frazier, another member of the company, was slightly wounded. At Wilson's Creek the company was engaged as hitherto described. Lotspeich's company, another Greene county organization but with many members from Stone and Taney counties, was with Campbell's at Wilson's Creek.

The next day after the battle of Wilson's Creek, Campbell's company came into Springfield as Gen. Price's escort. Here it remained during the first Confederate occupation, only a few of the members going to Lexington. During the winter of 1861 the company was re-organized. James McSpadden was elected captain; Jack Luck, 1st lieutenant; Louis Brashears, 2d lieutenant; William Merritt, 3d lieutenant; William Perkins, orderly. [404]

The company received some new recruits in January and February, 1862, and accompanied Price's army when it left the county on the approach of Curtis and Sigel. It fought at Pea Ridge, and afterwards was sent east of the Mississippi and joined Beauregard's army at Corinth. It remained in Mississippi during 1862 and participated in the battles of Iuka and Corinth. At the desperate assault on Corinth, Oct. 4, 1862 the Greene county company lost just half its members killed and wounded. Among the latter were Capt. McSpadden and Lieut. Brashears. The company was in the Vicksburg Campaign, and surrendered with Pemberton's army to Gen. Grant.

After the fall of Vicksburg the company never again was united. Some of the members stayed east of the Mississippi; others recrossed the river and joined Marmaduke and Shelby, and participated in Price's last raid into Missouri. A few fought under Sid. Jackman, and other irregular organizations.

During their term of service the members of the original organization of Campbell's company, either as that company, or belonging to another, participated in the engagements at Wilson's Creek, Dug Springs, Crane Creek, Dry Wood, Lexington, Missouri; Cane Hill and Elk Horn, Ark.; Iuka, Corinth, Saltillo, Baker's Creek or Champion Hill, Big Black, Grand Gulf, and Vicksburg, Miss.; Spring Hill, Duck River, and Franklin Tennessee; in all the battles fought by Joe Johnston in the Georgia campaign in 1864, and the survivors surrendered at Mobile, Ala. in the last battle of the war east of the Mississippi.

The old company was often complimented for good conduct on the battlefield by Gens. McBride, Rains, Bowen, Price and Joe Johnston. It fought well and lost largely in killed and wounded, and those who were left to return home made as good citizens as they did soldiers.

The remainder of the time the Confederate army spent in Greene county was employed in drilling the men and scouting. Expeditions were sent out from time to time in order to keep the men employed and to procure forage and such things as the army stood in need of. The white tents of the soldiers covered all the unoccupied ground in and about Springfield, and posts were established at Ebenezer, Bois d'Arc, and other points in the county.

Every house or other building in Springfield was occupied either by the families or by the officers for headquarters, offices, or hospitals. There were many sick in the place, and a great many died. The court-house, the churches, and other buildings were filled with the sick and a few wounded, and, owing to the lack of medicines and surgical appliances, they were not properly treated. The surgeons did as well as they could, however, and in their efforts they received considerable valuable assistance from the ladies of the town and surrounding country, who not only contributed provisions, clothing, and dainty bits of cookery for the benefit of the afflicted soldiers, but visited them and ministered to them in person. [405]

GEN. PRICE RETREATS—END OF CONFEDERATE RULE IN GREENE COUNTY.

About the 10th of February it began to be whispered about through Greene county that another Federal army was on its way from Rolla to Springfield, fully prepared to drive out Gen. Price, and as many more men as he already had in his army. The next day the Confederates began to get ready to leave. It was known that the Federal army was at Marshfield, and it was reported to be on this side in great strength, and, notwithstanding the increment weather then prevailing, marching rapidly on for Springfield. Some time previously the Federals had pushed out from Rolla and occupied Lebanon, and now the forces at both Rolla and Lebanon, save a small garrison at each place, were moving swiftly forward for Southwest Missouri.

Gen. Price could do nothing but get out of the way, and that at once, as his force was largely inferior every way to that of his enemy. And so the tents were struck, the baggage loaded, and the retreat began. Many families and civilians of Confederate sympathies and proclivities packed up and prepared to leave also. As many as twenty-five households and that number of heads of families went away with the Confederate army. Others followed not long afterward. Among those who followed the army were J. S. Moss and Maj. D. D. Berry, merchants of Springfield.

A SKIRMISH.

In the afternoon of the 12th of February a skirmish took place in Jackson township, near where is now the town of Strafford, between the advance guard of the Federal army, believed to have been a portion of the 1st Missouri cavalry and some Confederates who were stationed as a sort of picket or corps of observation. Two Confederates, belonging to a Morgan county company, are said to have been killed and three or four were wounded. No Federals were killed, but there was an ambulance full of slightly wounded. The Confederates retreated to Springfield. [406]

EXIT THE STARS AND BARS.

On the night of the 12th Price's army began to leave Springfield, taking the Cassville road. The movement was continued until on the 13th being delayed somewhat. As the troops marched away there were some tears shed by the fair female Confederates, many of whom had a husband, a brother, or a sweetheart in the ranks bound for Dixie, with a chance of never returning. The weather was foul and not at all comfortable for travel, but the Federal army was in sight, and who should be reported in the lead but Sigel—the same Sigel, of familiar memory, whom some of Price's men had met at Carthage, whom others had met at Wilson's Creek, and who for the third time was coming to Greene county. The march of the rear guard was accelerated somewhat by the knowledge that not only was there a force of blue-coated cavalry bearing down the wire road directly from Marshfield, but on either flank detachments were hovering, to come together, like the jaws of a trap, when the opportunity presented itself, and then close whatever was between them. And, so passed away the army under the Confederate flag, a banner destined to never again wave in triumph over the soil of Greene county.

As stated, many citizens of Confederate proclivities followed off Price's army. Among these was the family of Mr. Blanchard, of the western part of the county. The Federal advance overtook the wagon in which were Mr. B. and his son, John A. Blanchard, who had been orderly sergeant of Campbell's company. The Federals took Mr. Blanchard, senior, out of his wagon, in which were a gun and a revolver, carried him a few yards from the road and shot him. It was stated that Mr. Blanchard was killed for refusing to give up his revolver, which, the soldiers said, he pointed at them, threatening to shoot. It is altogether probable, however, that Mr. B. was murdered without sufficient excuse.

A number of other families went due south from Springfield into Arkansas, via Ozark and Forsyth. One caravan war, conducted by John H. Miller Esq.

ENTER THE STARS AND STRIPES.

Close upon the heels of the retreating Confederates came the Federal army, commanded by Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis, of Iowa, who had gone out eight months before as the colonel of the 2d Iowa infantry, resigning his seat in Congress to accept the position. Gen. Curtis' army was mainly composed of the divisions of Gens. Asboth, Sigel, Jeff C. Davis, and E. A. Carr. The latter had been here in August, at Wilson's Creek, as a captain in command of 56 cavalrymen under Sigel. Now he was back again, a brigadier-general, at the head of several thousand men.3 As the Federal troops came into the county the Union people that had remained through Confederate rule turned out and gave them a cordial welcome. [407]

Some of the soldiers were the recipients of extra fervent receptions and greetings, for their feet were on their native heath, and those who welcomed them were their own families, their old neighbors, and their own kinsfolk. These were the men of Phelps' regiment and Boyd's 24th Missouri who had enlisted from Greene county, and there were present some men who belonged to other regiments and whose homes were here.

Accompanying Curtis' army were very many Union people who had followed after Fremont's army, three months before, and were returning to their own homes upon positive assurance having been them that the army was coming into Southwest Missouri to stay. Among these were some merchants of Springfield and a few families living in other parts of the county.

Springfield was found rather the worse off for the Confederate occupancy. The store-houses and residences of Union citizens who had been compelled to leave on the retreat of Fremont and Hunter had been greatly abused, and even the houses of Confederate sympathizers had suffered. Parlors had been converted into barracks and were littered up with straw and hay; kitchens had been transformed into stables, and the amount of filth that had accumulated everywhere would have made the town untenable in warm weather. Huge quantities of rubbish and trash were piled upon the public square, and in nearly every hollow was a cess-pool and in every alley a muck-heap. A few buildings had been burned, none intentionally, however, as is believed.

In two weeks, however, there was a great change. The stores with their broken fronts were repaired, and filled with sutlers' and other goods much needed by the people; the dwellings, some of which were miniature Augean stables, were cleaned out; Lieut. Col. Mills, of the Lyon Legion," as Col. Boyd's 24th Missouri was called, was provost marshal, and set the prisoners and some details at work to clean off the public square and "police" up the town generally, and soon Springfield began to wear somewhat her former appearance. McElhany & Jaggard and McAdams & Co. refilled their old stores, Mrs. Worrell found her goods all safe and opened out at her old stand, L. A. D. Crenshaw filled up the store formerly occupied by Vinton Hornbeak, and, as the Federal officers had distributed greenbacks pretty liberally through this section, in payment for forage and other supplies taken, money was plenty and the people were soon able to procure many articles which they had so long been compelled to do without. [408]

Sunday morning, March 2, services were held at the Presbyterian church in Springfield by Rev. A. H. Powell. These are said to have been the first religious services in Springfield in the year 1862. There began to be talk of re-opening the schools, and matters were generally in a very satisfactory condition.

About the first week in March the telegraph line was completed from St. Louis to Springfield, via Lebanon and Marshfield. The line was built by the government, primarily for the use of the army, and extended along what afterwards came to be known as the "wire road." Soon after its completion to Springfield, the line was extended to Cassville, and on down to Curtis' army.

On the 1st of March the first number of a small newspaper, called the Springfield Missourian, was issued by A. F. Ingram. The Missourian was a four-page paper, each page measuring 10 by 7 inches, and containing three columns. The first number was especially devoted to "war news," giving, among other intelligence, an account of the capture of Ft. Donelson. The Missourian was issued time to time thereafter for some years, being enlarged when its patronage justified it. At first its price was 10 cents a copy.

The post-office at Springfield was re-opened and mails began to be regularly received. Allen Mitchell & Co. re-opened their steam mill and bought large quantities of wheat which had escaped the foragers of Fremont and Price. The price paid was $2 a bushel. Corn sold at $2 per barrel, or 40 cents a bushel. James Vaughn opened a new stock of stoves and tinware at his old stand on the east side of the square, and Sergt. J. B. Winger returned and again began selling cigars and tobacco, at his former place of business, one door south of the post-office. Allen McQuirter leased the old Chambers house, on the north side of the square, and opened a new hostelry called the Union Hotel.

Some of Curtis' army, in a spirit either of recklessness, carelessness, or wickedness, burned some unoccupied houses in Springfield which had been occupied by the military. One house so destroyed was that on College street, owned by Col. Phelps, where the body of Gen. Lyon was brought from the fatal field of Wilson's Creek. [409]

ORGANIZATION OF THE MISSOURI STATE MILITIA.

About the 1st of December, 1861, Gov. Gamble received authority from the War Department at Washington for the organization of the Missouri State Militia, the members of which, when engaged in active service, were to be armed, clothed, subsisted, transported and paid by the United States, and to co-operate with the United States forces in the repression of invasion into Missouri and the suppression of rebellion therein. The militia was not to be ordered out of the State of Missouri, "except for the immediate defense of said State."

On Monday, March 3, a mass meeting of Union citizens was held in Springfield to consider the question of organizing a regiment of the State Militia in this portion of the State. This meeting was addressed by Col. Marcus Boyd and others, and many recruits were obtained. In January Hon. John M. Richardson, formerly Secretary of State of Missouri and the leader of, first the Benton party, and then the Republicans in Southwest Missouri, had been commissioned a captain in the State Militia (or, "M. S. M.," as it came to be known) and was actively recruiting. Later he was commissioned Colonel of the 14th Cavalry M. S. M., and his company was then commanded by Abraham Worley. To the same regiment were attached two other companies composed largely of Greene county men—Company D., Capt. Sam A. Flagg, and Company E, Capt. Stephen H. Julian. Flagg and Julian received their commissions about the 1st of April.

GREENE COUNTY'S PART IN THE BATTLE OF PEA RIDGE.

The battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn Tavern, fought March 6th and 7th, 1862, was of peculiar interest to this county. Upon its results the destiny of the county, throughout perhaps the entire civil war, depended, for had the battle gone against the Federals, and Curtis been forced to retreat, the country would have again fallen under the rule of the Confederacy, and the Union people would have abandoned Southwest Missouri indefinitely. For some days the progress of Curtis' army into Arkansas had been watched, as it were, by the people with the deepest interest. Companies A, B, F, H, I, and K, of the "Lyon Legion," Boyd's regiment, under Maj. Eli Weston, and Phelps' regigment, under Colonel Phelps himself, were known to be with the army on the Federal side and many of the officers and men thereto belonging were from Greene. Ranged under the "stars and bars" were also Campbell's old company and many other men in different organizations. The county was well represented on both sides. [410]

The following were the casualties among the Greene county men in Phelps' Regiment:

Company D, Capt. John W. Lisenby, wounded by rifle ball in left shoulder, buckshot in left hip, and minie ball through each leg; 1st Lieut. Robt. P. Matthews, wounded through upper part of right breast, the ball lodging against the right, shoulder blade; 2d Lieut. Chas. C. Moss, right hip badly bruised by a piece of shell; 1st Sergt. ,Jacob Winger, buckshot in right eye, destroying the sight; 2d Sergt. W. W. Langston, wounded in the hand; Corporal James H. Cochran, musket ball through the right foot; Private Blanton Cargile, by minie ball in the left hand; James M. Logan, musket ball in the left leg; Wesley R. Logan, grapeshot through left arm, rendering amputation necessary; Wm. M. Patterson, musket ball in abdomen; Theophilus C. Piper, musket ball in right thigh; John Steele, musket ball in right leg; Young White, rifle ball in left arm.

Company H. Phelps' Regiment.—Captain George B. McElhannon, gunshot wound in shoulder, died at Springfield, March 29, 1862; 1st Lieut. John A. Lee, in the hip; 1st Sergt. Albert Demuth, in the right knee.

Company A, 24th Mo.—Hosea G. Mullings, wounded; Danl. C. Putnam and Wm. D. Popejoy captured. The latter is said to have been from Dallas county. The other companies from Greene county were not in the battle. Company D, Vaughan's (afterward Baker Owen's) company, was at Springfield. Concerning the part taken by the battalion of the 24th at Pea Ridge, and concerning the character of the battalion for general good conduct, a newspaper correspondent, a few days after the battle, wrote:

On the morning of the 7th inst, there were present at Sugar Creek, companies A, B, F, H, I, and K, under the command of Major E. W. Weston. They were stationed some two miles north of the main command, at the Elk Horn tavern, acting as provost guards, when it was discovered that Price had thrown his force, estimated at 20,000 men, between our army and Missouri. This discovery was not made until they (the enemy) were within a very short distance of us. But so wise and judicious were the dispositions made of his command by Major Weston, that for an hour or more, Price's whole force were kept at bay until reinforcements came up. All day Friday, from daylight until dark were these brave men on the field and in the thickest of the fight. They occupied a position on the left of Col. Carr's division, and although the point on which they were stationed was one of the most importance for strategic movements, and every effort was made by the enemy to dislodge them, yet for nine hours did they stand their ground under the murderous fires of the multitudes opposed to them, and it was only when the order to fall back was repeated time and again, that they would heed it. When they did retire, they did so contesting every foot of the ground, and was the first regiment in line to meet the oncoming enemy. Too much praise cannot be bestowed on Maj. Weston, the other officers and the men for the truly brave and soldierly manner in which they acquitted themselves on that memorable day.

Another remark with regard to the regiment. It is their proud boast, that, notwithstanding many of them have been robbed by the rebels of their all, yet not a man in the regiment has ever taken a single article without paying for it. To this, friend and foe will testify. You cannot find, I venture to say, a single pack of cards in the regiment. They all know and fully appreciate what they are fighting for, and all remember that when this war is done, that they are again to be members of society. They intend coming out of this conflict and return to their homes and families as free from vice as when they pledged themselves to their country.
Viator.

Mrs. Mary Phelps was present after the battle of Pea Ridge and did much valuable service in caring for the wounded. Many a life was saved by her devotion and care.

The Greene county Confederates were in the battle, and some of them were killed and wounded, but their names have not been obtained.

THE SWORD AND THE PLOW.

These two implements, wholly unlike in their nature, were each the firm friend of the other during the spring of 1862. By the 1st of April the farmers of this county had made arrangements to put in large crops during the season. No fears were entertained that Price would ever return to "spoil the vines of the husbandman" while it was certain that Springfield was to become the base of operations and supplies for the Federal "Army of the Southwest," for an indefinite period. Curtis had been largely reinforced and Gens. Price and Van Dorn had fallen back far into Arkansas. About 2,000 troops, one-half being cavalry, were already at Springfield and large reinforcements were known to be on the way from Rolla and other points, and as huge piles of military stores were being laid up, it was known that a very respectable force would be employed to guard them, and this force would need forage and other supplies, for which the Federal quartermasters were always willing to pay good prices to "loyal" owners—and by this time every farmer in Greene county considered himself loyal, whether he was so in reality or not! So, with the assurance of protection, and a guarantee of good markets, the farmers were stimulated to go again to work. The soldier agreed to guard the farmer, and the farmer agreed to feed the soldier, and the honors were easy. [411-412]

MISCELLANEOUS.

Up in Cedar county in the early spring, of this year the Confederates under John T. Coffee and others, were harassing the Union people very considerably and numbers of them were compelled to come to Springfield for protection. On the 25th of March the 3d Missouri Infantry Volunteers, 600 strong, came to Springfield from Rolla. This was Sigel's old regiment, and had inscribed on its flag "Springfield, August 10th." A majority of the men, however, were new recruits. A large number of the Federal wounded at Pea Ridge were daily arriving at the hospitals in the latter part of March and the first part of April.

RESUMPTION OF THE CIRCUIT AND COUNTY COURTS.

Upon the breaking up of the Missouri State government, in the spring and summer of 1861, public matters were in a pretty mess, to be sure. The Governor (Jackson), the Lieutenant Governor (Reynolds), the Secretary of State (Massey) and other officers were fugitives from the State capital, having taken up arms against the Federal Government. Upon the reassembling of the State convention, July 22, that body vacated the places of the State officers named and appointed in their stead R. R. Gamble, St. Louis, Governor; Willard P. Hall, of Buchanan, Lieutenant Governor, and Mordecai Oliver, of this county, Secretary of State. Mr. Oliver, up to that time, had not lived long in Greene, but yet a sufficient length of time to be well and favorably known.

Judge Patrick R. Edwards, in the summer of 1861, had "gone South" as the process of taking service under the Government of Claib. Jackson was sometimes called, and there was no circuit judge any more for this district or these people. The prosecuting attorney was also non est, and in those days there was no king in Israel; every man did that which was right in his own eyes—provided the soldiers would allow him. The Gamble government a pointed Littleberry Hendrick to the vacancy on the circuit court bench and H. J. Lindenbower prosecuting attorney, for this, then the 14th, judicial circuit. Both judge and prosecuting attorney were from Greene county. And now, though "inter arma silent legis" was a maxim

pretty generally recognized throughout Missouri, it was proposed to reopen the civil courts though it should be done under the protection of bayonets and cannon. [413]

On the 27th of March Judge Hendrick issued a circular to the people announcing the resumption of the judicial functions of civil government in the 14th circuit. From this circular, happily preserved by an attorney of that day, the following extracts have been taken:

On the first Monday in April the regular term of circuit court will be held at Lebanon, Laclede county. On the third Monday in April at Hartville, Wright county, and on the fourth Monday in April, an adjourned term will be held at Marshfield, in Webster county. The times of holding the regular terms in the other counties having passed, there can be no other regular courts except as above, until the time of the summer and fall circuit.

Special terms for trying criminal cases can, and probably will, be held as occasion may require, in all the counties in the circuit, during the spring and summer months.

The civil war into which our State has unfortunately been precipitated, has had the effect to suspend the operations of civil government for more than twelve months and has taught us a lesson we shall never forget. It is now hoped that civil government will take the place of civil war, and restore us to that happy state and condition which we enjoyed all our lives until recently, when not only peace and tranquillity, but also religion and religious enjoyments characterized our social state.

I have been appointed judge of this circuit, and humble as my abilities are, I hope to be able to do something toward restoring our present unhappy country to what it once was. This was the main purpose I had in consenting to accept an office of great responsibilities and onerous duties, far above my abilities to meet them as they should be met. With the assistance of all good citizens I am determined to do the best I can to administer justice "without sale, denial, or delay" to all persons, and without distinction of party.
Littleberry Hendrick.

April 7, 1862, cases again began to be docketed. Martin J. Hubble had been appointed clerk and E. M. Hendrick was his deputy. Monday May 19, the court regularly convened at Springfield. Judge Hendrick was on the bench; H. J. Lindenbower was circuit attorney; F. M. Hendrick was deputy clerk; Anthony Church, coroner, was serving as sheriff. The following licensed attorneys came forward, took the "Gamble oath, " and were admitted to practice before the court: H. J. Lindenbower, Alfred Julian, James W. Mack, M. Cavanaugh and D. C. Dade. [414]

The grand jury was composed of Woodson Howard, foreman; J. W. Lawrence, John L. Rainey, John Breedlove, Chesley Cannefax, Joel Phillips, David Potter, John Robertson, John Gibson, A. P. Matthews, Thos. Rountree, Wm. Ward, J. P. Moore, G. W. Cooper, Alexander Evans, Rufus Robberson and C. B. Henslee. Several indictments were found against "parties unknown," but supposed to have belonged to Price's army, for horses stolen during the Confederate occupation.

The grand jury was impaneled and convened returned some indictments, the first of which was against John Daniels and Wm. Baker, two young men, who were charged with horse stealing, a very common offense in the county for some months past. On the trials of the accused the jury disagreed in Baker's case, but Daniels was found guilty and the jury fixed his punishment at ten years in the penitentiary. Owing to the extreme youth of the prisoner and for other reasons, Judge Hendrick thought this punishment too severe, and he commuted it to two years, but even from this sentence the prisoner, by his counsel, appealed. These were the first cases brought to trial at this term of court. Sundry civil cases were disposed of and everything was done according to law until the adjournment of the court which was until the August term.

In August the court reassembled. J. A. Mack was circuit attorney, H. J. Lindenbower having been appointed judge of the probate and common pleas court. (Judge L. appointed F. H. Warren the common pleas clerk.) A large amount of business was done at this term, which occupied several days. The court did not convene again until in January, 1863.

RE-ASSEMBLING OF THE COUNTY COURT.

April 7, the county court of Greene county convened, for the regular April term. There were present two of the old county justices, Joseph Rountree and James W. Gray, who had remained "loyal." Judge John Murray resigned. The old county clerk, T. J. Abernathy,, having "seceded," A. C. Graves was appointed to the vacancy. Henry Matlock was appointed sheriff pro tem. Then the court adjourned to Monday, the 10th. Reassembling, the court met at the clerk's office, and the principal business done was the appointment of justices of the peace for the different townships of the county, as follows: [415]

Campbell Township

John S. Bigbee, Chesley Cannefax

Robberson

James K. Alsup, Joseph Headlee

Boone

John McElhanon, D. M. Sewell

Cass

John W. Wadlow, Wm. Sewell

Center

James Squibb, Lindsey Nichols

Pond Creek

Wm. Cliborne, J. P. Allen

Wilson

Woodson Howard, Wm. Garrett

Clay

M. J. Rountree, Samuel Kelley

Taylor

David Logan, A. Cunningham

Jackson

George Murrell, Philip Snyder

Several accounts were presented and allowed, when, there being no other business on hand the court adjourned till "court in course." July 7, the court reassembled, with Hosea Mullings in the seat of John Murray resigned. Coroner A. F. Church acted as sheriff, with H. C. McGown and J. F. Brown as deputies.

MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS IN APRIL AND MAY, 1862.

April 10 and 12 the greater portion of Phelps' regiment, which had enlisted for six months, was mustered out at Springfield, by reason of expiration of term of service. During its term of service the regiment had one officer, Capt. G. T. Potter, and 7 men killed in action outright and 9 mortally wounded; three officers and 82 men died of disease; one man was discharged for disability; eight men deserted, and 30 officers and 645 men were honorably discharged.

On the night of the 6th of April a thief (believed to have a "secesh"), stole a horse from one of the cavalry companies stationed at Springfield, and "lit out" for Dixie. He was pursued and over-taken at or near the bridge across the James. Refusing to halt, he was shot and instantly killed and the horse recovered.

Nearly every day during these two months Confederate prisoners, soldiers or "sympathizers," were brought to Springfield from surrounding counties. In Dade, Jasper, Newton and Cedar there was great disorder. Marauding bands, belonging to the regular Confederate service or fighting as guerillas, infested many localities and were plundering, and sometimes murdering, the Union citizens whenever opportunity offered. Some members of these bands and persons accused of aiding them were the subjects of arrest at different periods. Col. Clark Wright, of the 6th Missouri cavalry, set out from Cassville, where 2,000 Federal troops were stationed at the time, in the first week of April, and made an extensive scout through Newton, Jasper, Lawrence and Dade, capturing some prisoners, who were sent to Springfield. [416]

Sometime during the month of April two or three companies of Richardson's regiment, the 14th M. S. M., had completed their organization, and went to Jefferson City and Linn Creek for their arms, after being mustered in. May 22 one of the members of Capt. Richardson's company (A) was killed by Confederate bushwhackers, two miles below Sarcoxie. It was reported that the body contained sixteen bullet wounds.

About the middle of May the U. S. mail service was pretty well restored to this section of the State. Springfield was especially well supplied, although the mails were frequently delayed and not on time. The mail from Rolla was due daily, as was that from Sedalia. David Potter, of this county, was contractor for carrying the mail from Springfield to Greenfield, due twice a week. Also from Springfield to Layton's mill, in the southwest part of Taney county, via Forsyth—twice a week to Forsyth and once a week to the mill. I. Edmonson, also of this county, was the contractor on the route from Springfield to Stockton, and from Bolivar to Lebanon, both mails weekly.

Wednesday, May 21, the first number of the Springfield Journal, a four-page, five-column paper, made its appearance, edited and published by J. W. Boren and A. C. Graves. Unfortunately there is no copy of this paper now known to be in existence, the files having been burned about the close of the war. Prior to the establishment of the Journal, Mr. Ingram's little Missourian was the only paper published in this Congressional district.

SHOCKING TRAGEDY IN SPRINGFIELD.

On the evening of May 21 a terrible tragedy was enacted in Springfield. Colonel Powell Clayton's 5th Kansas cavalry was stationed at the place, and Capt. John R. Clark, of Co. B, of that regiment, was officer of the day on the occasion to be mentioned.

After dark Capt. Clark, in company with one A. J. Rice, both in a state of intoxication, called at the house of a Mrs. Willis, a widow lady who had recently come into the place from Arkansas, and demanded supper, which Mrs. Willis declined preparing for them. This refusal enraged the captain and his companion, and they drew their pistols on the guards that had been stationed to protect the family, and attempted to force their way into the house. One of the guards shot the captain through the body, when he retired a few steps and fell dead. Rice then fired his pistol at the guard who had shot Clark, but missed his aim and the ball struck Miss Mary Willis, a daughter of the lady of the house, hitting her in the head and killing her instantly. The other guard then fired at Rice, the ball striking him in the breast and ranging up through the shoulder, which was badly shattered. The wound eventually proved fatal. [417]

Mrs. Willis was a Union refugee, who had come to Springfield in the latter part of the previous winter. Her daughter was the third member of her family killed within less than nine months—two of her sons, Unionists, having been "bushwhacked" and killed by the Confederates in Northern Arkansas.

Capt. Clark was a Missourian, and, while his fate was doubtless deserved, it was particularly unfortunate. He was about 42 years of age, and, though a native of Ohio, had been a resident of Grundy and Mercer counties, this State, since 1836. When but 17 years of age he had served under Gen. Price in the Mexican war, and was at the battles of Bracito and Sacramento. Afterwards he was orderly sergeant of Co. B, Major Gilpin's Indian battalion, and was in the fight at Walnut Creek. After the Mexican war he married a niece of Kit Carson, and settled in Mercer county, of which county he was twice sheriff and once a representative in the Legislature. He was also a delegate to the Democratic State convention of 1856, which nominated Trusten Polk for Governor. In the civil war he had been in the Drywood fight, and two or three other minor engagements. He left a wife and four children. He was buried the next evening after his death with military and Masonic honors.4

GENERAL HOSPITAL AT SPRINGFIELD.

Shortly after the Federal occupation, a general military hospital was established at Springfield. Many of the wounded at Pea Ridge were brought here for treatment, and the sick and wounded from other points were conveyed hither from time to time. In the latter part of November 1,300 sick had accumulated, and deaths were occurring at the rate of four per day. A great majority of the Prairie Grove wounded ultimately reached the Springfield hospital, and many a man now living in the North was here nursed back to health, after being weakened by disease and well nigh jolted to pieces over the rough roads across the Boston mountains, via Cassville, to this point. [418]

RUNAWAY NEGROES.

As late, certainly, as in July, 1862, slaves were recognized as such by both the civil and Federal military authorities of Greene county, although there were many emancipationists in the county at the time. The law on the statute books at the time against runaway negroes was rigidly enforced. June 6, 1862, the following advertisement appeared in the Springfield Missouian, to run four weeks:

RUNAWAY SLAVES.
The undersigned Coroner, and Acting Sheriff of Greene county, Mo., hereby gives notice that the following runaway slaves have been arrested and lodged in the jail of Greene county, Missouri, viz.: A negro man named DUDLEY, dark color, about 25 years old, supposed to belong to John Wilson, of Clay county, Mo. GEORGE, a negro man, mulatto color, about 25 years old, supposed to belong to Hiram Bledsoe, of Lafayette county Mo. A negro man named FRANK, 25 years old, dark color, supposed to belong to David Fulbright, of Greene county, Mo. A negro man named LOUIS, 80 years old, dark color, supposed to belong to Wm. B. Farmer, of Greene county, Mo. A negro woman named ANN, 21 years old, dark color, and has a child 6 or 8 years old, mulatto, supposed to belong to Benjamin Elliott, of Clay county, Mo. Unless the owners of said slaves make application to the undersigned Coroner or his Deputy, or the Sheriff of Greene (should one in the meantime be elected or appointed), on or before the 30th day of SEPTEMBER, 1862, and prove, according to law, their right to or ownership of said slaves, and pay all charges incurred on account of said slaves, the same shall then be offered at public auction, to the highest bidder, at the Court House door in the city of Springfield, Greene county, Mo., between the hours of nine o'clock, a.m., and five o'clock, p.m., of that day, for cash in hand, the proceeds thereof to be reserved and appropriated as prescribed by statute.
A. F. Church, Coroner.

The negroes mentioned as belonging outside of this county had probably been brought here by the soldiers that had come in, and abandoned by them on going into Arkansas. The following is a copy of a certificate given in a runaway slave case by Esq. John J. S. Bigbee, of Campbell township:

State of Missouri,
County of Greene.
I, John S. Bigbee, a justice of the peace, in and for the county aforesaid, do hereby certify that James F. Brown, deputy coroner of Greene county, Mo., hath this day brought before me Sarah, a negro woman, and a negro boy, Harry, or calling themselves such, as runaway slaves; and that it appears to my satisfaction that said Sarah and Harry are runaway slaves, the property of Mrs. Elizabeth Herriott, of Marion county, Mo., and that they, the said Sarah and Harry, fled or was taken away from near Hanible [Hannibal], in the county of Marion, and was apprehended by the said J. P. Brown at Springfield, in the county of Greene; and that, in my opinion, the distance between the place where the said runaways was apprehended and the place whence they fled is over 250 miles. Given under my hand this 30th day of June, 1862.
John. S. Bigbee, J. P.
[420]

DEATHS DURING 1862.

January 22, Judge James Dollison, the well-known old pioneer and county judge, aged 62 years and four days. February 7, Rev. Joel H. Haden, so long connected with the Springfield Land Office, at his home in Howard county, Mo. October 9, Maj. Daniel D. Berry, formerly a prominent merchant of Springfield (and one of the first), and ex-county treasurer. [419-420]

——————
1 Its orderly sergeant, John A. Blanchard, says its date of service began June 21st, and ended in September, being enlisted for only three months, but the preponderance of statements is against him.
2 It is said that Fulbright did not belong to Campbell's company.
3 As a member of Gen. Carr's staff rode Lieut. John E. Phelps, son of Col. Phelps, and afterwards a colonel and brevet brigadier.
4 Space has been given for a mention of Capt. Clark's public services at request of a few of his relatives, now living in Greene county.


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