History of Greene County, Missouri
1883

R. I. Holcombe, Editing Historian


Chapter 11
History of the County During 1862

Part 2

The November Elections — Official Canvass, Including the Soldier Vote — The "Gamble Oath" — A Joke on a Carpet-Batter by "Pony" Boyd — Operations of the 14th M. S. M. in December — The Fortifications at Springfield — Organization of the Enrolled Missouri Militia — Roster of the 72d and 74th Regimants, E. M. M.


THE NOVEMBER ELECTION, 1862.

Notwithstanding the presence of hundreds of soldiers in the county, and the thousand and one shocks to law and order incident to "war's alarms," affairs in Greene county during 1862 were reasonably quiet. As has been stated, courts were held and other proceedings gone through with according to the forms of law; and the vote at the election of this year, while not very large and full, was fair and free, and the election itself was conducted without intimidation or any over-awing on the part of the soldiery. So far as this county was concerned, the bayonet protected, and did not attempt to control, the ballot-box.

About the only political issue involved in the election of 1862 was the question of emancipation in Missouri. The emancipationists in this county—that is, those in favor of the gradual emancipation of slaves in the State, compensation to be given to loyal owners—were slightly in the majority, as it turned, out. Everybody was for the Union—that is, everybody allowed to vote, for no one was permitted to cast a ballot without first taking an oath to support the United States Government and the Gamble or provisional government against all enemies, domestic and foreign. But the Union men differed as to emancipation, some favoring, some opposing.

At this election, the soldiers of the county, who would have been qualified voters here, were allowed to vote, no matter where stationed. Those stationed at Springfield and at other points in the county, were not allowed to vote at the ordinary polling places, but each military troop had a ballot-box of its own, presided over by three sworn judges and two clerks, and this polling place was required to be separate from where the civilians voted, in order that the presence of the soldiers might not intimidate the citizens. [420]

The principal candidates voted for in Greene county, at the November election (Nov. 4th), 1862, were:

For CongressCol. John S. Phelps, conservative Union or anti-Emancipationist, and Col. S. R. Boyd, Emancipationist.
For State SenatorJ. W. D. L. F. Mack, Emancipationist, and Col. Marcus Boyd, anti-Emancipationist.
For Representatives— Sam'l W. Headlee and Jared E. Smith, Emancipationists; C. B. Holland and John Dade, conservative Union and anti-Emancipationists.
For Sheriff—Thos. A. Reed and John E. Ernest.
For County Justice—Woodson Howard and W. B. Farmer.

Wm. McAdams, for county treasurer, and John McElhannon, for assessor, had no opposition.

The following is an abstract of the official canvass of the vote in this county, and of the Federal soldiers belonging thereto that voted (many of the Greene county soldiers did not vote, being stationed far away in the South where no polls were opened), at the November election, 1862:

OFFICIAL CANVASS NOVEMBER ELECTION, 1862.

The principal candidates voted for in Greene county, at the November election (Nov. 4th), 1862, were:
For CongressCol. John S. Phelps, conservative Union or anti-Emancipationist, and Col. S. R. Boyd, Emancipationist.
For State SenatorJ. W. D. L. F. Mack, Emancipationist, and Col. Marcus Boyd, anti-Emancipationist.
For Representatives— Sam'l W. Headlee and Jared E. Smith, Emancipationists; C. B. Holland and John Dade, conservative Union and anti-Emancipationists.
For Sheriff—Thos. A. Reed and John E. Ernest.
For County Justice—Woodson Howard and W. B. Farmer.
Wm. McAdams, for county treasurer, and John McElhannon, for assessor, had no opposition.

The following is an abstract of the official canvass of the vote in this county, and of the Federal soldiers belonging thereto that voted (many of the Greene county soldiers did not vote, being stationed far away in the South where no polls were opened), at the November election, 1862:

OFFICIAL CANVASS NOVEMBER ELECTION, 1862.

 

Congress

State Senator

Representatives

Sheriff

Co. Judge

Twp and Mili-
tary Companies

Phelps

S. H. Boyd*

J. F. Mack*

M. Boyd

Holland

John Dade

S. Headlee*

J. E. Smith*

T. A. Reed

J. R. Earnest

Howard

Farmer

Campbell, 1st

187

144

161

153

152

151

149

153

134

150

135

130

Campbell, 2d

45

34

34

36

37

41

31

32

33

34

28

35

Robberson

9

53

62

5

11

1

68

54

37

25

63

4

Center

19

17

33

3

8

16

27

17

35

1

28

7

Wilson

7

13

13

9

7

5

17

16

15

5

17

2

Cass

12

30

38

0

8

8

40

33

31

9

35

3

Boone

21

5

7

18

21

14

7

4

18

6

14

6

Jackson

18

21

25

10

17

14

30

25

27

12

19

18

Clay

12

5

13

3

9

7

10

8

11

6

9

1

Pond Creek

0

25

26

0

0

0

26

26

24

0

25

0

Taylor

5

30

33

2

5

4

32

30

33

4

32

0

Co. G-72d E.M.M.

2

8

17

0

1

0

17

17

3

9

12

0

Co. F-72d E.M.M.

3

14

13

0

1

0

5

5

3

3

3

0

Co. E-14th Cav. M.S.M.

4

30

21

0

1

1

21

20

7

18

21

0

Co. A-74th E.M.M.

9

3

7

5

10

5

7

0

10

0

0

0

Co. D- 6th Mo. Cav. Vols

0

29

3

0

0

0

1

0

2

0

0

0

Co. E-72d E.M.M.

8

20

24

4

3

2

22

21

20

1

23

1

Co. H-74th E.M.M.

15

3

4

3

13

5

6

0

11

0

0

0

Co. G-8th Mo. Cav. Vols

16

18

0

1

1

0

4

2

3

0

0

0

Co. D-8th Mo. Cav. Vols

12

5

15

1

0

4

12

10

4

9

10

0

Co. F-8th Mo. Cav. Vols

16

1

1

0

6

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

Co. A-8th Mo. Cav. Vols

14

9

18

1

5

3

11

3

10

1

5

0

Co. B-74th E.M.M.

15

16

36

1

16

4

12

3

12

3

0

0

Co. A-14thMo.Infy

1

31

26

3

0

4

32

17

30

1

0

0

TOTAL

450

564

630

258

332

289

587

499

513

297

479

207

Note: The avowed Emancipationists are marked with a star (*). [421]

For county treasurer, Mr. McAdams received 391 votes, and for assessor John McElhannon, 605. The vote of Co. E, 8th Mo. Cavalry—Boyd 6, and Phelps 1—was rejected for want of proper certification.

The result in the Congressional district was the election of Col. S. H. Boyd, of the 24th Mo., over Col. John S. Phelps, latterly of "Phelps' Regiment," and afterwards colonel of the 72d E.M.M. For State Senator, J. W. D. L. F. Mack was elected over Col. Marcus Boyd. Christian county gave Mack 266 and Boyd 26 votes. The Springfield Missourian, published by A. F. Ingram and edited by Chas. E. Moss was the organ of the Emancipationists of Greene county, and the Journal, Graves & Boren's paper, was the Conservative Union journal.

THE "GAMBLE OATH."

Reference has been made to the "Gamble oath," meaning the oath of loyalty required by the provisional government of Missouri by all voters, office holders, etc. The following is a copy:

I, ——, do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that I will support, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of Missouri, against all enemies and opposers, whether domestic or foreign; that I will bear true faith, loyalty and allegiance to the United States, and will not, directly or indirectly, give aid and comfort or countenance to the enemies or opposers thereof, or of the Provisional Government of the State of Missouri, any ordinance, law or resolution of any State Convention or Legislature, or any order or organization, secret or otherwise, to the contrary notwithstanding; and that I do this with a full and honest determination, pledge and purpose, faithfully to keep and perform the same without any mental reservation or evasion whatever. And I do further solemnly swear (or affirm) that I have not, since the 17th day of December, A. D. 1861, willfully taken up arms or levied war against the United States or against the Provisional Government of the State of Missouri, so help me God.

After a time the "Gamble oath" was supplemented by one more binding, more exacting, harder to take, and still harder to observe. This was called the "iron-clad oath." [422]

A JOKE ON A CARPET BAGGER.

During the Congressional campaign in this district in 1862, a practical joke was played upon Charles E. Moss, the editor of the Missourian. Mr. Moss was a recent importation to Greene county, having come from Iowa here with the 1st Iowa cavalry. He was a writer of good ability, and a radical Emancipationist. Col. S. H. Boyd was stumping the district as well as he could, and on one occasion was to speak at Mt. Vernon. Moss arranged to accompany the colonel. The commander of the post at Springfield, Col. W. F. Cloud, of the 2d Kansas, sent an escort with them, as the road was thought to be infested with bushwhackers.

On the way Boyd contrived to fill Moss with more than half a pint of Dutch courage, and he was soon declaring his contempt for any kinds and all sorts of danger. Boyd supplied the escort with some of the same article and induced them, after supper, to ride on ahead and arrange a sham ambush. The men did so and when the colonel and Moss rode up—it being pitchy dark, and at a lonesome spot, some 18 miles west of Springfield—opened on them with their revolvers. Moss was mounted on a fine white stallion, and turning hastily about galloped away for Springfield, he and his horse resembling a streak of daylight as they sped along the dusky road. Boyd and the escort chased him four miles or so, and then turned about and rode on to Mt. Vernon. Moss returned to Springfield and announced that Boyd and the escort were either killed or taken prisoners, and that he had barely escaped with his life. Col. Cloud sent out a company to investigate the affair, and when the truth was learned it was made very pleasant for a few days for the Iowa carpet-bagger!

OPERATIONS OF THE 14TH M. S. M. IN DECEMBER, 1862.

At the battle of Prairie Grove, Ark., Dec. 6, 1862, Capt. Julian's Greene county company of the 14th cavalry, Missouri State Militia, fired the first gun on the Federal side discharged by Gen. Herron's division. The entire portion of the regiment engaged, numbering about 100 men, performed valuable service for the Union cause by uniting with 25 men of the lst Arkansas (Union) cavalry and 175 men of Judson's 6th Kansas, and holding a road, thus preventing the Confederate General Hindman from throwing his entire force upon Gen. Herron and crushing him before Gen. Blunt could come up and cooperate. The Confederates were delayed two hours by this small force. [423]

On the 14th of December 40 men of the 14th M. S. M., under Lieut. John R. Kelso, 60 enrolled militia under Capts. Green and Salee, the whole under command of Capt. Milton Birch, of the 14th M. S. M. raided the Confederate saltpeter works on White river, near Yellville, Ark., made prisoners of Capts. Jesse Mooney and P. S. McNamara and 36 men; destroyed 35 stand of arms; a complete supply of provisions for 50 men three months; burnt four buildings, and destroyed machinery, kettles, manufactured saltpeter, etc., to the amount of $30,000 and brought their 38 prisoners to Springfield without the loss of a man.

Other similar "scouts" were made about this time from Springfield into Arkansas, and north and west after Confederate guerilla bands, recruiting companies, and other hostile organizations. Often expeditions were undertaken for the purpose of procuring forage, which, in such cases, was "captured," not bought and paid for.

FORTIFICATIONS AT SPRINGFIELD.

During this year the Federal military commanders constructed heavy fortifications at Springfield to command the town and protect the large stores of government property then in and about the place. Four large forts were built, as follows: Fort No. I (Ft. Brown) was situated a little northwest of the town, about a mile and a quarter from the public square, and is still standing, the walls in tolerable condition; Fort No. 2 was at the west end of Walnut street, near Mrs. Ruth Fulbright's, and its location can still be seen, and its embankment is yet in fair condition; Fort No. 3 was near the residence of Judge Hendrick, in the southwest part of town; it was never fully completed. Fort No. 4 was on South street, nearly opposite the Baptist church, commanded the approaches to the town from the south, and was the fort attacked by Marmaduke. Rifle pits connected No. 4 and No. 2. A covered way led from No. I to the Fulbright spring. Fort No. 5 was in the east part of town on the north side of the St. Louis road, and overlooking the Berry spring.

These forts were built by details from the different military commands, by prisoners, by impressed citizens and negroes, but principally by details from the Federal soldiery. They were very well, supplied with artillery, and Ft. No. I had some heavy siege suits, brought from St. Louis, and also had magazines, quarters, and was by all odds the best and most important fortification in this part of the State. The defenses at Springfield were constructed under the supervision of Col. M. LaRue Harrison, afterward the commanding officer of the 1st Arkansas cavalry. Col. Harrison was a fine civil engineer. As Springfield was the base of supplies for the Federal army of the Southwest, containing the general hospital, the quartermaster's, commissary's, and ordinance departments, etc., it behooved the military commanders to protect it well. But they did not always do it. [424]

ORGANIZATION OF THE ENROLLED MISSOURI MILITIA.

On the 22d of July, 1862,—when Cols. Jo. Porter and J. A. Poindexter were leading large forces of newly-recruited Confederates throughout North and Northeast Missouri, and daily adding to their strength, and Cols. John T. Hughes, John T. Coffee, Vard Cockrell, and others were slashing about through Jackson, Johnson, and Cass counties, and Jo. O. Shelby was raising his fine regiment of cavalry at the Grand Pass, in Saline county, and the devil was to pay with the rascally "rebels," everywhere,—His Excellency Gov. Gamble issued the following order:

Headquarters State of Missouri, Adj. General's Office
St. Louis, July 22, 1862.
Special Orders No. 101.
The existence of numerous bands of guerillas in different parts of the State, who are engaged in robbing and murdering, peaceable citizens, for no other cause than that such citizens are loyal to the government under which they have always lived, renders it necessary that the most stringent measures be adopted to punish all such crimes, and to destroy such bands. Brigadier General John M. Schofield, in command of the Missouri State Militia, is hereby authorized to organize the entire militia of the State into companies, regiments, and brigades, and to order into active service such portions of the force thus organized as he may judge necessary for the purpose of putting down all marauders and defending the peaceable citizens of the State.
H. R. Gamble,
Governor of the State of Missouri.

Three days later Gen. Schofield ordered "an immediate organization of all the Militia in Missouri for the purpose of exterminating the guerillas that infest the State." The Militia were further directed to assemble at any post with whatever arms they had, and a good horse each, if they had one, elect officers, and be sworn into service according to the laws of the State. They were to be kept in service such portion of the time as the commanding officer of the district might direct, and while in service were to he paid as volunteers. The "Paw Paw Militia,"1 as the E. M. M. were sometimes called did good service on many occasions, especially in Greene county, and are worthy of honorable mention. [425]

At Springfield the organization of the Enrolled Missouri Militia began about the 1st of August. What a great time there was about the enrolling, to be sure! Many of the "able-bodied men" were Confederate sympathizers; many more detested "those vile guns" and abhorred the smell of villainous saltpeter," and there were a great many ingenious devices resorted to to escape even this sort of military service.

Two regiments, the 72d and the 74th, were almost wholly recruited in Greene county. C. B. Holland was the first colonel of the 72d, followed by Henry Sheppard, F. S. Jones, and John S. Phelps. Marcus Boyd was the first and only colonel of the 74th. The Greene county companies and the names of their officers, together with the regimental officers, of these two regiments, taken from the reports or the Adjutant General of the State are here given: [426]

SEVENTY-SECOND REGIMENT E. M. M.

Date of Commission


Name


Rank


Accounted For

Sept. 9, 1862

C. B. Holland

Colonel

Promoted to Brig. Gen. Oct. 27, 1862.

Nov. 18, 1862

Henry Sheppard

Colonel

Resigned Sept. 30, 1863.

Oct. 1, 1863

F. S. Jones

Colonel

Resigned, Jan. 22, 1864; entered U. S, service, Col. 6th Prov. Regt.

June 25,1864

John S. Phelps

Colonel

Vacated March 12, 1865

Oct. 1, 1863

John F. McMahan

Lt. Col.

Entered U. S. service, 6th Prov. Regt.

Nov. 4, 1864

F. S. Jones

Lt. Col.

Vacated March 12,1865

Nov. 18,1862

John Hornbeck

Major

Resigned Aug 15,1863

Oct. 2, 1863

R.. K. Hart

Major

Entered U. S. service, 6th Prov. Regt.

Nov. 4, 1864

John Hursh

Major

Vacated March 12, 1865

Sept. 9, 1862

J. W. D. L. F. Mack

Adjutant

Resigned Jan. 1, 1864

Feb. 27, 1864

John B. Waddill

Adjutant

Revoked by Special Order 233, 1864

Dec. 27,1861

James F. Harchin

Adjutant

Vacated March 12, 1865

Nov. 18, 1862

William P. Davis

Q. M

Resigned Jan. 22, 1864

Jan. 22, 1861

Samuel Turner

Q. M

Transferred to 6th Provisional Regt.

Sept. 28, 1864

Martin J. Hubble

Q. M

Vacated March 12, 1865

Dec. 11, 1862

Peter Barnes

Surgeon

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

COMPANY A.

Feb. 5, 1868

Nathaniel Sink

2d Lieut.

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

——

D. J. McCroskey

2d Lieut.

Killed at battle of Springfield, Jan.8, '63

COMPANY B.

Sept. 19, 1862

R. K. Hart

Captain

Promoted to Major, Sept. 29, 1863

Dec. 8, 1863

Wm. F. McCullagh

Captain

Revoked by Special Order No. 233

Jan. 22, 1864

Stephen L. Wiles

1st Lieut.

Revoked by Special Order No. 233

July 7, 1864

S.Pears

2d Lieut.

Vacated March 12, 1865

COMPANY D.

Oct. 3, 1862

J. E. Smith

Captain

Vacated March 12, 1865

April 2, 1863

G. S. Patterson

1st Lieut.

Vacated March 12, 1865

Oct. 3, 1862

S. B. Ranney

2d Lieut.

Resigned June 10, 1864

June 30, 1864

T. J. Kershner

2d Lieut.

Vacated March 12, 1865

COMPANY E.

Oct. 3, 1862

G. A. Dillard

Captain

Vacated by Special Order 126,1864.

Sept. 15, 1864

G. A. Dillard

Captain

Vacated March 12, 1866.

Oct. 3, 1862

Wm. F. Lane

1st Lieut

Died.

Mar. 11, 1868

Andrew J. Potter

1st Lieut

Vacated by Special Order 126,1864.

Mar. 11, 1863

Robert Love

2d Lieut

Vacated by Special Order 126,1864.

COMPANY F.

Oct. 3, 1862

George T. Beal

Captain

Resigned July 16, 1864

Oct. 3, 1862

Bryant Windfield

1st Lieut.

Resigned Jan. 10, 1864

Oct. 3, 1862

Joseph Windfield

2d Lieut.

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

COMPANY G.

Oct. 3, 1862

S. W. Headlee

Captain

Revoked by Special order No. 233

Oct. 3, 1862

Irwin W. Jenkins

1st Lieut.

Vacated by Special order 126, 1864

Oct. 3, 1862

Alexander Evans

2d Lieut.

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

COMPANY I.

Oct. 3, 1862

F. S. Jones

Captain

Promoted to Lt. Col. Nov. 11, 1862

Feb. 3, 1863

John B. Perkins

Captain

Vacated March 12, 1865

Oct. 3, 1862

John L. Holland

1st Lieut

Vacated by Special order 126, 1864

Feb. 3, 1863

James K. Gilmore

2d Lieut.

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

SEVENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT E. M. M.

Feb. 3, 1863

Marcus Boyd

Colonel

Resigned.

Dec. 27, 1862

John S. Coleman

Lt. Col.

Dismissed Oct. 5,1863

Dec. 27, 1862

J. F. McMahan

Major

Promoted to Lt. Col. 72d Regt., Oct. 1, '63

Oct. 2, 1863

John Small

Major

Revoked, to date from Nov. 1, 1863

Sept. 1, 1863

Fenton Young, Jr.

Adjutant

Promoted to Surgeon, Dec. 20, 1862

Dec. 27, 1862

John R. Cox

Adjutant

Resigned Oct. 28, 1863

Nov. 17, 1863

Alfred G. Lee

Adjutant

Vacated March 12, 1865

Dec. 27, 1862

James L. Rush

Q. M.

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

June 11, 1864

F. Young, Jr.

Surgeon

Revoked, to date from Aug. 17, 1864

Oct. 1, 1863

John Hunt

A. Surg'n.

Resigned July 16, 1864

COMPANY A.

Oct. 3, 1862

J. M. Redferan

Captain

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

Oct. 3, 1862

John McDaniel

1st Lieut.

Vacated by Special order 126, 1864

Oct. 3, 1862

E. Phillips

2d Lieut.

Vacated by Special order 126, 1864

COMPANY C.

Oct. 3, 1862

Green B. Phillips

Captain

Vacated by Special order 126, 1864

Oct. 3, 1862

Isaac P. Julian

1st Lieut.

Vacated by Special order 126, 1864

Oct. 28, 1863

James C. Robertson

2d Lieut.

Vacated by Special Order 126, 1864

COMPANY H.

Oct. 3, 1862

John Small

Captain

Promoted to Major Oct. 1, 1863

Nov. 10, 1863

Robert M. Hayter

Captain

Revoked by Special Order 233, 1864

Oct. 3, 1862

Lazarus H. Phillips

1st Lieut.

Entered U. S. Service

Jan. 24, 1863

Robert M. Hayter

1st Lieut.

Promoted to Captain Oct. 24, 1863

Oct. 3, 1962

M. W. Ackerson

2d Lieut

Resigned March 31, 1863

Jan. 30, 1864

S. A. Harshburger

1st Lieut.

Revoked by Special Order 233, 1864

Jan. 30, 1864

Preston Gillmore

2d Lieut.

Resigned Aug. 29, 1864

When fully organized the 72d regiment numbered 38 commissioned officers and 1,042 enlisted men; total, 1,080. The Greene county men in this regiment numbered 502.

The 74th regiment numbered 38 officers and 966 men. Number of Greene county men, 278.

 —————— [428]
1 So called because up on the Missouri river it was said that a large portion of the members were old "rebels" and bushwhackers, who had lived on paw-paws while hiding in the river bottoms and thickets from the Federals.


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