Jonathan Fairbanks and Clyde Edwin Tuck

Past and Present of Greene County, Missouri

Early and Recent History and Genealogical Records
of Many of the Representative Citizens


Chapter 17
SECRET SOCIETIES
by M. C. Smith

Part 2
Military and Youth Organizations


SONS OF THE REVOLUTION.

Through the efforts of Prof. Edward M. Shepard the Springfield Chapter of the Sons of the Revolution was organized at his home, April 17, 1911, about thirty men being present. Committees were appointed to report at a more formal meeting to be held on May 2nd, when the following officers were elected: Edward V. Williams, president; George M. Sebree, first vice-president; Clarence C. King, second vice-president; Edward M. Shepard, secretary; Edward M. Smith, treasurer; board of managers, Aleck C. Anderson, T. B. Holland, William A. Chalfant, Fred O. Small, Alfred C. Kilham, and Martin J. Hubble. On May 10, 1911 the opening banquet of the Springfield Chapter was held at the Colonial hotel, the address of the evening being given by the well known author, Cyrus Townsend Brady, on the subject, "The Hand of God in American History." Greetings from the general society were given by Henry Cadle. The Kansas City society was represented by its secretary, J. M. Lee. Dr. Horatio N. Spencer, governor of the Missouri Society of Colonial Wars made an address. Greetings from officers of the state society were read by Burke Holbrook. A. M. Haswell read an original poem on "The Minute Man." Vocal and instrumental music were features of the program. There were about one hundred guests. June 9, 1911 the chapter entertained Bishop Daniel S. Tuttle, who made an address on December 18th of that year the society held its annual meeting. The object of the society is to perpetuate the memory of the men who served in our war for independence; to assist in a proper celebration of Washington's birthday, also in celebrating several other patriotic days, such as the Fourth of July, some of the victories of the Revolution and other great historical events of national importance; also to collect and secure for preservation manuscript rolls, records and relies of that War; to erect monuments, mark graves of soldiers, and especially to promote among its members and their descendants the patriotic spirit of the men who served in the Revolution, In short, the object of the society is purely patriotic. [544]

Professor Shepard has been historian for the Missouri Society of the Sons of the Revolution for many years. There are four chapters, in the state, one in St. Louis, one in Kansas City, one in St. Joseph and the Springfield chapter.

The principal, meeting of the local chapter, as of all the chapters is held on Washington's birthday, February 22nd. Patriotic songs are sung, addresses appropriate to the occasion are made and an elaborate banquet served. Some distinguished speaker is selected to make the principal address. The speaker in 1912 was Bishop Daniel S. Tuttle; Judge John Phillips, in 1913, Bishop Sidney Catlin Partridge, in 1914; and Rev. Dr. Jefferson Davis Ritchie, in 1915. At different times during the year smokers are held at the homes of members and addresses are features of these gatherings.

The officers of the Springfield Chapter for 1915 are, Albert Sidney Lee, president;, John Maxwell Cowan, first vice-president; Joseph Button Lindsay, second vice-president; Edgar Mortimer Smith, treasurer; and Rev. Fayette Hurd, secretary. Board of managers, Edward Valentine Williams, George McClelland Sebree, Aleck C. Anderson, Henry Shelton Bennett, Edward Martin Shepard, and Frank Parrish Clements. Following are the names of the members of the local society: Aleck C. Anderson, Frank DeWitt Arnold, John Clark Bayless, Henry Shelton Bennett, Frank Edward Besse, William Towne Chandler, Chauncey Haseltine Clarke, Frank Parrish Clements, John Adrian Davenport, James Otis Fairbanks, Richard Livingston Goode, Allison Mason Haswell, George Howland Hill, Burke Holbrook, DeVerne Cary Houston, Junius Wilson Houston, Alfred Whitney Hubbell, Lucitis Clinton Hubbell, Martin Jones Hubble, Allen Sparrow Humphreys, Fayette Hurd, James Holland Keet, Alfred Chadwick Kilham, Clarence Chaddinton King, Albert Sidney Lee, Joseph Button Lindsey, Joseph John Richesin, John Clark Rogers, Robert Emmett Rogers, George McClelland Sebree, Edward Martin Shepard, Edgar Mortimer Smith, Wells Ferrie Smith, Wilbur Charles Smith, John Randolph Smith, William Dare Sheppard, Edward Valentine Williams, Simeon Augustine Baker, John Maxwell Cowan, James Howard Langston, John Adrian Davenport, Jr., William Edwin Freeman, Thomas Bailey Townsend, John William Williams, William Addison Chalfant and Clinton Leach Chalfant. [545]

GRAND ARMY ORGANIZATIONS IN GREENE COUNTY.

By W. C. Calland

During the Civil war Greene county was one of the most active centers in the Southwest. Many recruits were enlisted at this point and from which a number of organizations were sent into the service. Recruits from Laclede, Polk Webster, Christian and Taney counties were enlisted in Springfield; and after the war this and adjoining counties became a mecca for mustered out soldiers. They were attracted by the climate, water, healthful conditions and the abundance of public lands in the Ozark country, so that a surprisingly large number settled in these southwest counties. These Civil war veterans from their past service had become somewhat gregarious in their nature and it was but natural that they should be inclined to unite in soldier organizations in the various parts of the country.

Ten posts of the Grand Army of the Republic were organized in the various parts of Greene county, and during the past thirty-five years twelve hundred soldiers have been mustered into these posts. This organization has proven to be an important factor in the politics of the county. The following are the names of the posts which have been mustered in the county and the chronological order of their organization:

Post No. 69, known as Capt. John Matthews Post, of Springfield, was mustered May 3, 1883, by comrade Charles, Emery. The first commander was Judge W. F. Geiger. There are twenty-nine charter members, as follows: W. F. Geiger, John Adams, C. M. Eversole. James R. Milner, A. M. Sanders, Solomon S. Robinson, W. H. Park, John W. Lisenby, Charles Kroff, J. M. Mathie, D. E. Murphy, W. L. Johnson, Henry Jones, W. A. Love, W. H. Wade, Walter D. Hubbard, W. H. M. Reid, W. W. Langston, John P. Tracey, Joseph Ward, B. H. Langston, J. A. Reep, A. H. Tevis, D. P. Reece, Robert Thomas, John McCabe, William Mathie, and Perry D. Martin. Four hundred and seventy-nine have become members of this post since its organization. One hundred and twelve are still living, while the active membership is seventy-four. W. C. Calland is the present commander, this being his fourth term. Many prominent men of this community have held membership in this post, viz: Colly B. Holland, Dr. Jonathan E. Tefft, Judge W. F. Geiger, Col. S. H. Boyd, Hon. J. P. Tracey, Hon. William H. Wade, Dr. C. C. Clements, Col. J. W. Lisenby, Capt. A. R. McDonald, Major W. D. Hubbard, Capt. T. M. Allen, George H. Sease, P. W. Bahl, Judge J. J. Gideon, Lieut. T. J. Gideon, Capt. H. J. Dutton, Capt. John Adams, Dr. J. McAdoo, James R. Milner, and J. N. Williams. A number of these men have been prominent in professional and political life. [546]

Post No. 210, known as McCrosky Post, was mustered September 26, 1884, in North Springfield with twenty-three charter members. William Mathie was elected post commander. Three hundred and fifty-two members have held membership in this organization. Comrade J. B. Johnson is the present commander, while the active membership is forty-five.

Post No. 292, is known as Thomas A. Read Post, of Ebenezer, and was mustered November 6, 1886, by William Mathie, with twenty-two charter members. Robert A. Vaughan was elected commander.

Post No. 234, known as Ash Grove Post, was mustered by William Mathie with seventeen charter members. Comrade H. H. McCall was chosen commander.

Post No. 315, known as William B. Lane Post, of Strafford, was mustered February 16, 1887, Comrade H. A. Doan, with twenty-one charter members. John McCabe was elected commander.

Post No. 319, known as Captain Mack Post, of Green Ridge, was mustered May 23, 1887, by James R. Milner, with fifteen charter members. Henry T. Howard was chosen commander.

Post No. 397, known as Brookline Post, was mustered August 16, 1888, by A. S. Grove, with twelve charter members. J. R. Gammon was elected commander.

Post No. 409, known as John Shelton Post, of Palace, was mustered January 19, 1889, by J. W. Lisenby, with fifteen charter members. W. H. Kershner was chosen as commander.

Post No. 449, known as Fair Grove Post, was mustered October 3, 1889 by James R. Milner, with fifteen charter members. J. W. Cecil was chosen commander.

Post No. 476, known as Col. William Parkinson Post, of Springfield, was mustered June 30, 1890, by James R. Milner, with fifteen charter members. Shady Wilson was elected post commander.

The total number mustered in these ten posts reaches one thousand two hundred. Approximately two thousand Federal soldiers settled in Greene county since the war. These soldiers came from Ohio, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota and Tennessee. The pension money received by these ex-soldiers have proven quite a factor in the development of the Southwest.

Comradeship born of the war has brought much aid and sympathy to the sick and wounded soldiers, their widows and orphans. Large sums of money have been contributed as an aid fund to help comrades incapacitated by wounds and sickness. The advent of these trained veterans has added an element to our population that has been law-abiding and patriotic.

The soldiers of the North and South have met each other in friendly tolerance and the bitter remembrance of the war is largely past. It may seem somewhat anomalous and yet we find a few Federal and Confederate ex-soldiers members of the same church and the same political party. [547]

NATIONAL CEMETERY.

On the memorable 10th of August, 1861, the fierce battle of Wilson's Creek was fought and three hundred and fifty Federal soldiers fell; and on January 8, 1863, the battle of Springfield was won by the Federals with a loss of two hundred and fifty killed.

These dead were buried hastily on the sanguinary fields where they fell. Within two years after these battles, bones might be found on either field, and it thus became a necessity to remove these bodies, lightly covered, to some permanent place of interment. A movement was started by the Union men of the county, and the city government, which resulted in the purchase of a five-acre tract of land adjacent to Hazelwood cemetery for the sum of two hundred and eighteen dollars. An estimate was made as to the probable cost of the preparation of the grounds and the removal of the dead, and it was found to be so great that the enterprise halted for a season. Then besides, the desire and fitness that these grounds should be maintained and cared for separately in the future increased the problem. At the suggestion of a number of public men in the city county and state, a numerously signed petition was presented to Congress, through our state representatives, asking that the United States government take over the grounds and maintain them for all time. After some delay Congress authorized the quartermaster department to investigate conditions, and if thought advisable, take over the grounds, remove the dead and take steps for the proper care of the same. The transfer was made in August, 1867. Early in 1868 a government agent came to Springfield to superintend the removal of the dead, to enclose the grounds, prepare a lodge for the keeper, erect markers, plant trees and lay out driveways. About eight hundred bodies, mainly from Springfield and Wilson's Creek, were disinterred and placed in the new location. This number included those who died from wounds and sickness and some from near by towns. [548]

Subsequent experience demonstrated the earlier estimates as to the cost of the establishment of this soldier burial place. From the report of the government inspector it is found that the total cost from the time of removal of the dead to June 30, 1874, was fifty-six thousand, seven hundred and seventy-six dollars. This included the cost of the grounds, the removal, the markers, the walls, the rostrum, mound, lodge, barn, well, flag staff, preparation of the grounds, shade trees, boulevard, cost of the government agents and the cost of administration for six years. The annual expense is about one thousand dollars. The salary of the keeper is seven hundred dollars; one helper, thirty-nine dollars per month; day laborers, one dollar and a half per day. The keeper is given free rent, fuel and water; also furniture for one office. room; all extras are secured through a requisition on the department quartermaster in St. Louis. The keeper has supreme control over all the government property under the general direction of the quartermaster. These public officers are "changed about" rather frequently, generally coming from one state to another. Three years seem to be the general average of control. The regulations of the department are strict and the officer is expected to meet all reasonable demands of the public. For the least infraction or omission of duty the officer is called upon the carpet. Quite a variety of keepers has served this post. A large number of them have proven themselves courteous, dignified and clever, while a few have shown themselves haughty, proud, supercilious, and even contemptuous. A few years since one of the keepers became so domineering and discourteous that a commander of Captain Matthews Post said to him: "From your attitude one might suppose that you had a mortgage on these grounds." One year ended his service. The officer preceding the present one was simply ideal, while the present keeper, Mr. Burns, has won the hearts of all by his gentlemanly decorum. The recent action of the department has added additional duties, which bring considerable increased care to the keeper the oversight of the boulevard and the trees thereon, and the care of the Confederate cemetery. This increased care has not been accompanied with an increase of salary. The keeper seeks to give the same supervisory care to each of these cemeteries.

The location of the cemetery is on Kickapoo prairie about four miles southeast of Springfield. The grounds are enclosed by a rubble stone wall laid in mortar and covered with a coping of sandstone slabs. The main entrance is on the north side. There is a driveway from the entrance to and around the mound, which is in the center of the lot, and upon which is the flag staff. There was formerly a driveway around the lot just inside the wall, but this has been discontinued. The mound is eighty feet in diameter at the base and three terraces are made upon its surface. A goodly number of hard maple trees affords abundant shade and the closely-cut lawn adds much to the general view. A tasteful variety of flowers is clustered about the grounds. There are six gun monuments located upon the grounds, two near the entrance and the others along the driveways. These guns were, taken from the forts in Springfield and were used in the defense of the city. The graves are arranged in parallel rows and are flush with the ground. The dead of each state are grouped together and the name of the state is placed on the marker. The dead from Iowa, Illinois, Michigan and Kansas constitute the larger groups. Near the entrance gate is located a monument donated by Dr. T, J. Bailey and dedicated to the soldiers and citizens who fell in the defense of Springfield. The cost of the monument was five thousand dollars. The dedication of this splendid gift of our fellow townsman took place May 30, 1869. The presentation was made by Judge Geiger and the acceptance by Thomas C. Fletcher. The height of the monument is thirty-two feet and the top is surmounted by a private soldier, panoplied for war. This gift manifested the patriotic ardor of the war times. Inscribed on the face of the monument are these words: "They sacrificed their lives to defend our homes. They are our dead, and with grateful hearts we will remember them. In honor and to aid in memory of the citizens and volunteer soldiers who were killed and died of wounds received in defense of Springfield against the Confederates, January 8, 1863." [549]

THE FIRST DECORATION.

The first decoration of the soldiers' graves took place June 30, 1868. Judge Geiger was officer of the day and the addresses were made by S. H. Boyd and W. E. Gilman. A procession one mile in length was formed in Springfield, with sixty-five wagons, twenty carriages, five hundred on horseback and one hundred and fifty footmen. The procession was met near the cemetery by two hundred people from the country. Two great floats were ladened with flowers, sufficient in quantity to literally cover the graves. Many from surrounding towns flocked to the city, drawn hither by the occasion, the novelty, and the established cemetery by the United States. The people carried their luncheon with them and tarried in the hallowed spot till late in the afternoon. It was a pathetic sight, the removal of the dead had just been completed. Here were eight hundred newly-made graves and hundreds of relatives gathering around the graves that concealed their dead were pouring out their grief and lamentation in audible sounds. The occasion, the addresses, the large attendance, produced a profound impression. Mothers, wives and sweethearts kneeling about the place that marked their dead—the fact that they were in the presence of eight hundred slain men, grouped together in the same field—all these sights and thoughts brought back afresh the past few years.

There are but three National cemeteries in the state, and but one Confederate. The National cemeteries are located at Jefferson City, Jefferson Barracks, and Springfield. [550]

Who may be buried in a National cemetery? All officers, cadets, enlisted men of the army, navy and marine corps, men in government revenue service, army and navy paymasters, who died in the service and held discharges; also army nurses honorably discharged. Eminent citizens who rendered praiseworthy service to their country may be buried in National cemeteries by special permission. Evidence of service must accompany the request for interment, such as a discharge or pension certificate, or special permission from the quartermaster's department in St. Louis. Interments may not be made on Sundays or on holidays. Inscriptions on markers are limited to the name, rank and military service of the decedent. The Government furnishes the headstones or markers, and the keeper must see that these are kept clean. No shrubs, plants, baskets or any other receptacles are allowed upon the graves. The average interments are about twenty-five per year. The total number resting in the National cemetery is one thousand, eight hundred and sixty-six-known, one thousand, one hundred and fifty- seven-unknown, seven hundred and nine. The Confederate-cemetery contains five hundred and sixty graves, mostly unknown. Hazelwood contains four thousand graves. This city of the dead has a population of six thousand, four hundred and twenty-five.

One more thoughtful addition has been made by the National Government to her burial places. To serve as an epitaph for her fallen heroes and for the purpose of giving direction to the thought and meditation of visitors, iron placards have been placed along the driveways, on which are printed, in raised letters, selections from the, poem of Theodore O'Hara, a native of Kentucky, born in 1820. This great elegiac poem, "The Bivouac of the Dead," is supposed to have been written by this author while in the Mexican War. After the great battle of Buena Vista, which practically closed the war, the dead had been collected, embalmed, and made ready for shipment to America, and while watching over these dead the vision of "The Bivouac of the Dead" filled the young lieutenant's mind and he gave forth to the world an elegiac poem that most critics concede surpasses even the renowned Gray's "Elegy." The following stanzas appear along the driveway of this cemetery: [551]

The muffled drum's sad roll has beat
The soldiers' last tattoo;
No more on life's parade shall meet
The brave and daring few.

On fame'seternal camping ground
Their silent tents are spread;
And glory guards with solemn round
The bivouac of the dead.

No answer of the foe's advance
Now swells upon the winds,
No troubled thoughts at midnight haunts
Of loved ones left behind.

No vision of the morrow's strife
The warrior'sdream alarms;
No braying horn nor screaming fife
At dawn shall call to arms.

The neighing steed, the flashing blade,
The bugle'sstirring blast;
The charge, the dreadful cannonade,
The din and shout are past.

Sons of our consecrated ground.
Ye must not slumber there,
Where strangers' steps and tongues resound
Along the heedless air.

Your own proud land'sheroic soil
Shall be your fitter grave;
She claims from war her richest spoil—
The ashes of the brave.

Rest on, embalmed and sainted dead,
Dear as the blood ye gave,--

No impious footstep here shall tread
The herbage of your grave.

Nor shall your glory be forgot
While fame her record keeps,
Of honor points the hallowed spot
Where valor proudly sleeps.

Nor wreck nor change nor winter'sblight
Nor time'sremorseless doom,
Shall dim the ray of holy light
That gilds your glorious tomb.

CAMPBELL CAMP—CONFEDERATE ORGANIZATION.

Campbell Cam No. 488, United Confederate Veterans of Springfield, Missouri was organized March 4, 1894, with forty-one charter members. The first commander was F. C. Roberts. Other officers elected at the time of organization were as follows: First lieut. D. B. Berry; second lieut., X. Hawkins; third lieut. T. J. White; adjutant, N. B. Hogan; quartermaster, William Shultz; surgeon, Dr. W. F. Toombs; assistant surgeon, Dr. E. A. Roberts; chaplain, Rev. H. B. Bowd; officer of the day, J. M. Wilson; commissary, T. H. Cox; vidette, J. C. Gardner; color bearer, J. E. Elliott; treasurer, J. H. Witt. [552]

One hundred seventy-two ex-soldiers have been mustered since the organization. Eighty-four have died, thirty-five have removed, twenty-one dropped out, and thirty-two remain as active members. This camp being the only one in the surrounding counties, a number have become identified with the camp who live some distance from Springfield. The regular attendance of the camp has not been large, so that a comparatively small number have administered the affairs of the organization. A number of the prominent men of Springfield and Greene county have been and are now identified with the camp and have been factors in the political and civic life. R. N. Snodgrass is the present commander.

The Daughters of the Confederacy have been a strong support in the maintenance of the organization and without their loyalty to the aged veterans the work of the camp could not have been sustained.

The Sons of Veterans also have proven a valuable support to the camp. These Sons of Veterans have been made honorary members of the camp and are permitted to meet with and participate in the business. This composite organization deserved great praise in securing a burial place for the Confederate dead. They were wise in selecting a place adjacent to the National Federal cemetery, for they were enabled not only to avail themselves of the fence along one side of their lot but also finally to facilitate the transfer to the United States, so that its nearness enabled both cemeteries to be cared for by the same superintendent. The camp also rendered valiant service in securing the handsome monument, which as a work of art, is unsurpassed in the Southwest.

The Confederate veterans after their return from the war took up their place in the community, desirous to provide a livelihood for themselves and those dependent upon them, and sought to perform the duties of citizenship. They did not exhibit a factious spirit but were disposed to recognize the results of the war. They did put forward the modest claim that they "were not licked but simply overcome by superior numbers." These men are numbered among our best citizens. The mingling together of the ex-soldiers of the North and South has been an interesting feature. A friendly tolerance has been manifested by both and little friction has been observed. In some cases warm and firm friendship has grown up between the veterans of the two armies. The younger men and women have been more inclined to keep alive the war spirit than the veterans themselves. Three score and ten years has enfeebled the limbs of the Confederate veterans and now but few remain. Of the one hundred and seventy-two at the beginning of the camp, eighty-five have been mustered out, while those who remain are growing weary of the march and their warfare must soon end. It is a matter of regret that quite a number of these Confederate veterans are possesses of little of this world's goods.

Stepping out of the business rush for four years, it is difficult to again compete with those who had an established business and an increasing income. The four years of service was not the full measure of their sacrifice, but their whole future life in its necessary limitations must still add to the offering they made. Unlike the soldier of the North they have not had their efforts supplemented by a liberal pension to bring some added comforts in their declining ears. 'Tis true the state furnishes a home for dependent Soldiers, but a soldier goes to a home as the last resort. It requires more than food and drink to make a home. [553]

CONFEDERATE CEMETERY.

The establishment of the Confederate cemetery was born of necessity. Many soldiers fell in battle in and around Springfield and in Greene county, while many others died from wounds and sickness. In the battle of Wilson's Creek; August 10, 1861, two hundred and seventy-five Confederates were killed; and in the battle of Springfield, January 8, 1863, about three hundred more fell in battle, while the list of wounded in both battles was large. Most of the dead in these two battles were buried on the field in a hasty manner. The Confederates in the Springfield battle left their dead on the field and they were buried by the Federals in shallow trenches and within four years after when the city began to make improvements in the streets and construct foundations for houses, many of these dead bodies were exposed and it became a matter of humanity and sanitation that all these bodies should be disinterred and removed to some suitable place for permanent interment. It was then that Confederate friends, moved by sympathy and humanity, started a movement to secure a permanent burial place in which not only those who fell in Springfield, but also on Wilson's Creek battlefield might find a permanent resting place. Those who took the active leadership in this movement were Capt. George M. Jones, Benjamin U. Massey, Rev. W. J. Haydon and C. K. Dyer. These men led a campaign to raise funds for the purchase of a plat of ground to which the removal of these dead might be made at once. At this first organization three hundred dollars was secured and a tract of three and eighty-six hundredths acres of land was secured immediately south and adjacent to the National cemetery. The land was purchased from Martha E. Powell, in March, 1870, for a consideration of one hundred and sixty dollars and the removal of the dead began at once. At a cost of two thousand five hundred dollars the bodies of five hundred were buried on the new grounds. Two hundred and sixty were removed from Springfield and two hundred and forty from Wilson's creek. The first annual decoration of these graves was held in June, 1870. It was a notable occasion and was attended by a large number from Springfield and the surrounding country. [554]

Colonel Musser was the orator of the day and Capt. George M. Jones was the presiding officer of the occasion. President Jones in calling the assembly to order made these suggestive remarks: "These grounds were selected because of the appropriateness of the place. On the south is the citizens' cemetery, while on the north lie those who died for the flag that floats over them. May not the living, who come here annually for the purpose of paying tribute to either, learn a lesson from the profound peace that reigns supreme. In close proximity lie the dead of both armies—a large number who met each other face to face at Wilson's Creek and Springfield, and from this vast army comes no jarring discord to mar the harmony of the scene."

From the beginning it had been the dream of the Confederate Association that a substantial stone fence should surround these chosen grounds and that an appropriate monument should tower above the graves of their beloved dead. But this would require a great effort and a large sum of money, and as Springfield had already contributed largely, it was thought wise to transfer the grounds to the State Confederate Association and thus by a united effort complete the work at an early day. Accordingly in 1882, the care and keeping was committed to the State Association and this larger body pledged itself to take up the work and push it to a final conclusion. Five thousand dollars was pledged for a substantial and ornate fence around the land. The association availed itself of the south wall of the National cemetery and thus saved the expense of that part of the wall. Courtesy was granted by the government and the universal consent of the public. The total cost of the fence was six thousand dollars. In 1887, the association proceeded to raise the fund for the monument which had been long contemplated.

THE CONFEDERATE MONUMENT.

The estimated cost was ten thousand dollars. After seven thousand dollars had been secured, the Daughters of the Confederate Camp contributed the sum, of five thousand dollars; this handsome gift lifted the sum to twelve thousand dollars and this was the final cost of the monument.

In 1901 the cemetery and monument were dedicated amid the rejoicing of the association and the public at large. As a work of art this monument perhaps surpasses anything along this line in the Southwest. The pedestal is substantial and symmetrical, surmounted by a posing figure eleven feet high, representing a private soldier panoplied for war. The monument can be seen from the surrounding cemeteries and invites the visitor to stop and ponder. The numerous superinscriptions on the base represent war-time sentiment. The promoters of this complete and up-to-date cemetery are deserving of much praise, and nothing short of comradeship and personal loss of loved ones could have called forth sufficient effort to accomplish this enterprise. As the years passed the care and keep of the cemetery became a heavy charge to those near the place, and there arose a feeling that when the immediate friends and near relatives should pass away, there might come a time when proper care and attention might fail. A passing incident gave vocal expression to this fear. [555]

After the close of the Spanish war, President McKinley was invited to visit Atlanta, Georgia, and in his public address he gave utterance to these unexpected words: "I believe the time will come when the care of the soldier cemeteries, both North and South, will be assumed by the National government." This sentiment electrified the south and perhaps no public utterance has had a stronger tendency to draw together the whole American people and help heal the wounds of the Civil war. This magnanimous sentiment expressed by the President brought to the minds of the Confederate Association the proposition of turning over to the government the care of this cemetery. While this proposition at first shocked the minds of some, who felt that in some degree it was a step toward the abandonment of a sacred duty they had assumed toward their dead, yet wiser minds pointed out the fact that the government could really take better care of their dead than they themselves. In 1907 the deed of transfer was made to the United States, with a pledge on their part that the government would properly care for the place and put it under the supervision of the superintendent of the National cemetery. Senator Warner and Congressman Hamlin aided in the transfer.

In 1911 the transfer was comleted and after some delay a gateway was cut in the wall thus connecting the two burial places. The following bill was passed by the government: "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that the Confederate cemetery near Springfield Missouri, and which adjoins the National cemetery of that place, having been tendered by proper authority to the United States government, the same is hereby accepted, under the conditions that the government shall take care of and properly maintain and preserve the cemetery, its monument or monuments, headstones and other marks of graves, its walls, gates and appurtenances, to preserve and keep a record, as far as possible, of the names of those buried therein, with such history of each as can be obtained and to see that it is never used for any other purpose than as a cemetery for the graves of men who were in the military or naval service of the Confederate states of America. [556]

"Provided, that organized bodies of ex-Confederates or individuals shall have free and unrestricted entry to said cemetery for the purposes of burying worthy ex-Confederates, for decorating the graves, and for other purposes which they have heretofore enjoyed, all under proper supervisions, regulations and restrictions made by the Secretary of War.

"Section 2. That the Secretary of War, under this act, is directed to take necessary steps for the proper transfer of the cemetery to the government and when the same has been duty completed, to put it in charge of the keeper of the National cemetery of Springfield, Missouri; requiring him to exercise the same care in the preservation, beautifying and care-taking generally done in regard to the National cemetery.

"Also that a suitable gate or entry-way be made in the stone wall that now divides the two cemeteries, so that persons may readily pass from one to the other. Should additional funds be required to carry out the provisions of this act, they may be paid out of any funds available for maintenance of National cemeteries."

The deed of transfer was dated June 21, 1911. The cemetery is now under the management of the government and the work of improvement and care is eminently satisfactory. The speaker's stand has been repaired and painted, the head-stones have been cleaned and the general appearance much improved.

There are five hundred and sixty Confederate graves duly marked and a record kept of those recently buried. All records of former associations are preserved in the safe of the superintendent. The highway from the city to these grounds is maintained by the government. Autos find this splendid driveway a pleasant road to travel and the cemeteries greet numerous visitors daily. The three cemeteries adjacent to each other constitute a veritable city of the dead with a population of seven thousand two hundred.

YOUNG MEN'sCHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION.

A movement to establish a Young Men's Christian Association in Springfield was begun in March, 1888, and the organization was effected in June of that year. W. A. Brubaker was called as general secretary, and in September, E. E. Spangler was secured for the position of physical director. A suitable location was rented on College street, equipped with reading room, small gymnasium and shower baths. Mr. Brubaker served about four years as general secretary, and was succeeded by William McCaskill, of Columbus, Mississippi. The latter resigned after two months' service, and was succeeded by L. E. Buell, a former assistant secretary of the Madison street department of the Chicago association. Mr. Buell was succeeded by James H. Banks, who is now secretary of the Missouri State Young Men's Christian Association. [557]

Immediately after the state convention of this association, in 1899, which was held in Springfield, a financial canvass looking forward to a new association building was begun. In May, 1900, special effort was made to quicken the efforts and stimulate the interest in the movement for a new building and soon the sum of seven thousand dollars was raised. The contract price for the new building, without locker furnishing, was twenty-one thousand dollars. The building was located at the southwest corner of St. Louis and Jefferson streets. The building was an attractive and substantial brick and well arranged in every way for the purposes intended. It has a large gymnasium, an auditorium, with seating capacity of five hundred, and twenty-seven sleeping rooms for rental purposes. This building was the first to be owned by the association, and was greatly appreciated by the members after they had spent some twelve years in the crammed quarters on College street. But the association was not destined to long enjoy their elegant new quarters, for the building was destroyed by fire about ten years later.

The association was practically without a home for about two years. A campaign was begun toward securing funds for a new building. Citizens of Springfield responded liberally. The money thus raised was added to the amount of the insurance and that obtained from the sale of the lot occupied by the burned building. Valuable property was purchased on South Jefferson street, and in March, 1913, work on the new building was begun, and was completed in September, of that year, at a cost of a total investment of eighty thousand dollars. It is modern, attractive, substantial and one of the finest buildings of its kind in any city the size of Springfield. It is four stories with basement, with seventy-one well-furnished sleeping rooms, a large gymnasium with all modern apparatus, an ample swimming pool, shower baths on each floor, a neat auditorium with a seating capacity of two hundred and fifty, scores of lockers, a barber shop and a cafe in the basement, and two splendid tennis courts in the rear. The reading room is well supplied with all current literature.

The new building was occupied in September, 1913. The present membership is thirteen hundred, which is the third largest in the state.

The present secretary of the local association is George G. Helde, who has held this position about one year.

YOUNG WOMEN'sCHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION.

The spring of 1908 saw the beginning in Springfield of the Young Women'sChristian Association, an institution which has for the past seven years filled a great need in the life of the stranger girl in our city. [558]

The association was organized by Mary McElroy, at that time executive secretary for this district, with the co-operation of the Christian women of the community. Since the first year the organization has boasted an average of one thousand members, including women of all denominations and of various faiths. The home of the association since its inception has been at 304 East Walnut street, but the trustees and board are hoping in the near future to erect their own building on the site already given by Mrs. Josephine Watson and Lizzie McDaniel, opposite the Young Men's Christian Association building, on South Jefferson street.

The board of directors has had four presidents, namely: Margaret Sheppard, who is still an honorary officer; Ada Grabill, Mrs. Charles Howell and Mrs. W. J. Shannon. Those who have served as general secretaries are Mary Lehman, May Ouinn, Mrs. May Lewis, Ada Grabill and. Daisy June Trout.

The aim of the association is to uplift and develop young womanhood, socially, intellectually, physically and religiously, and the work is so broad it appeals to every side of a girl's life no matter what her position or station. The Young Women's Christian Association offers to its members various privileges and always at as low a price as possible. In its cafeteria meals are served at a minimum cost. Its dormitory furnishes to twenty or more girls clean, comfortable lodgings for a reasonable price. The educational department offers classes of all sorts at a small tuition and lectures free of charge. The gymnasium appeals to many girls who are employed in offices during the day, and its classes are taught by a trained instructor. There is beside the social life which this organization offers to all its members and which is recognized as a real part of the life of every normal girl.

The association is evangelical, but interdenominational, working among girls of all creeds or of no creed at all. It is in no way intended to take the place of the church, but to supplement it and to minister to the needs of young women in a way that is impossible in the average church. The real meaning of the Young Women's Christian Association is perhaps best expressed by the national motto, "I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly." [559]

 


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