A Directory of Towns, Villages, and Hamlets
Past and Present
of Madison County, Missouri

Compiled by Arthur Paul Moser

Madison County

Madison County is south of St. Francois County. The highest elevations are west of the St. Francois. They are Daguerre Mountain, 492 feet; Blue Mountain, 551 feet; Smith's Mountain, 432 feet; Rock Creek Mountain, 575 feet, and Black Mountain, 467 feet.
    History of Southeast Missouri, 1888, Goodspeed, p. 213.

Probably the first settlement in Madison other than the mining communities which were continually shifting, was made by John Calloway, who came from Kentucky, and located on Saline Creek, as early as 1799. He served as judge of the court of quarter-sessions of Ste. Genevieve District in 1806, and was sheriff of Madison County.
    History of Southeast Missouri, 1888, Goodspeed, p. 254.

The first white men to make exploration in what now comprises Madison County were Renault and La Motte and their companions about the early years 1721-23. They discovered minerals, principally lead, but owing to their finding no silver ore, no settlement was made at that time...

The first person of whom there is any record of his settlement upon land in the county for agricultural purposes is John Calloway, a Kentuckian, who in 1799 was granted land on Saline Creek at the mouth of the Little St. Francois.
    Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 1901, Conard, Vol. 4, pp. 157-158.

Madison County was organized by legislative act December 4, 1818, and was named in honor of President Madison. The county then extended to Black River, and was reduced to its present limits in 1857 when a portion of it was included in Iron County. The first county court was held February 12, 1821, at the house of J. G. W. McCabe, the justices being William Dillon and Henry Whitener, with Nathaniel Cook, clerk. Then the county was divided into Castor Township, eastern part; St. Michael's, western, and Liberty, northern part. Two new townships were added, German and Twelve Mile. St. Francis Township was organized in 1845, Arcadia in 1848 and Union in 1850. Arcadia and the greater parts of Union and Liberty were cut off by the organization of Iron County in 1857. The present (1901) townships are Polk, St. Michaels, Liberty, St. Francis, Castor, Twelve Mile and German. The first county seat was St. Michaels and in 1819 the commissioners appointed to locate a permanent seat of justice--Theodore F. Tong, John Burdett, John Bennett and Henry Whitener--selected Fredericktown two and one-half miles distant from that place. Up to 1822 courts were held in private houses in St. Michaels. That year a brick court house was built in Fredericktown, and in November was occupied by the court
    Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 1901, Conard, Vol. 4, pp. 157-158.

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