Jonathan Fairbanks and Clyde Edwin Tuck

Past and Present of Greene County, Missouri

Early and Recent History and Genealogical Records
of Many of the Representative Citizens

Chapter 2
Geology, Location and Topography
by Edward M. Shepard

Part 2

The two following well-sections, that of the Springfield Traction Company and the well at the pump Station of the Springfield City Water Company, give accurate vertical sections of the rocks underlying the city of Springfield, and vicinity. As these two deep wells are a little over four miles apart, they also show that slight variations occur in the thickness of the different beds.

Log of the Springfield Traction Company's second deep well, at southeast corner of the power house, southeast corner of Phelps avenue and Main street, Springfield, Missouri, altitude 1268 feet, A. T. June to October, 1910. [78]


Thickness of Horizon

155 feet
90 feet
35 feet
40 feet
30 feet
15 feet
40 feet
190 feet
300 feet
18- feet


Upper Burlington
Lower Burlington
Hannibal sandstone and shale
Louisiana limestone
Devonian Limestone, sandstone and shale
Joachim limestone
St. Peter sandstone
Jefferson City limestone
Roubidoux sandstone
Gasconade limestone

Total Depth

155 feet
245 feet
280 feet
320 feet
350 feet
365 feet
405 feet
595 feet
895 feet
913 feet

Log of deep well No. 1 of the Springfield City Water Company, located at the Fulbright Spring pump station, about thirty feet south of the engine house, near the northeast corner section 3 township 29, range 22. Drilling commenced July 18, 1914, and completed to a depth of fourteen hundred four and one-half feet January 2, 1915.


Thickness of Horizon

10 feet
30 feet
40 feet
20 feet
45 feet
300 feet
168 feet
35 feet
7½ feet
27½ feet
105 feet
35 feet
175 feet
121 feet
290½ feet


Upper Burlington
Lower Burlington
Chouteau limestone
Hannibal sandstone and shales
Roubidoux formation
Gasconade limestone
Gunter sandstone
Louisiana limestone
Devonian limestone, sandstone and shale
Joachim limestone
St. Peter sandstone
Jefferson City limestone
Decaturville, or Proctor, limestone
Bonne Terre formation

Total Depth

10 feet
40 feet
80 feet
100 feet
145 feet
790 feet
958 feet
993 feet
152½ feet
175 feet
280 feet
315 feet
490 feet
1114 feet
1404½ feet

By courtesy of Mr. H. B. McDaniel, Vice-President of the Springfield City Water Company, we are able to publish the following complete log of their deep well, a summary of which has just been given. Samples of the drillings from this well have been collected by the writer, and are preserved. in the office of the company: [79-83]

10 feet
10-20 feet
20-30 feet
30-40 feet
40-60 feet
60-70 feet
70-80 feet
80-90 feet
90-100 feet

Soil, red clay and broken chert.
Coarse-grained limestone, 20% white compact chert.
Coarse, gray limestone, 25% white compact chert.
Compact gray limestone, 40% white compact chert.
Hard white, compact, knife-blade chert.
Dark gray, hard, compact, silicious limestone, trace of white chert.
Coarse-grained, bluish, hard, silicious limestone, 3% white chert.
Dark bluish gray, hard, compact limestone, 5% hard white chert.
Light bluish gray, compact limestone, 10% hard white chert.

 100-105 feet
105-120 feet
120-130 feet
130-140 feet
140-145 feet
145-152½ feet
152½-157½ feet

157½-160 feet

160-162½ feet

162½-176 feet
176-180 feet
180-185 feet
185-190 feet
190-200 feet

Dark blue, silicious shale.
Coarse fragments of light blue shale.
Large fragments of light blue shale.
Small fragments of light blue shale.
Gray silicious shale and lime, some chert and considerable marcasite.
Coarse particles light gray silicious dolomite.
Very light gray particles silicious dolomite, with rounded dark, water-worn sand grains, considerable marcasite, some silicious particles.
Dark, silicious, dolomitic lime, small rounded grains of drusy quartz (sand), some rnarcasite, a few rounded dark pebbles.
Mixture of highly silicious gray dolomite, some silicious shale, some marcasite, small rounded quartz grains.
Light gray, silicious dolomite.
Dark gray, silicious dolomite, few fragments of blue shale.
Gray quartzite, some dolomite.
Mixture of highly silicious dolomite, quartzite and some white flint.
Light gray, highly silicious dolomite, larger particles of brown shale

200-220 feet
220-230 feet
230-240 feet
240-250 feet
250-260 feet

260-270 feet
270-280 feet

280-290 feet

290-300 feet

300-305 feet

305-307 feet
307-320 feet
320-330 feet
330-350 feet
350-360 feet
360-370 feet
370-380 feet
380-390 feet

390-400 feet

Coarse fragments highly silicious gray dolomite.
Fine particles gray, silicious dolomite, trace of marcasite.
Fine particles white dolomite (cotton rock).
Irregular particles of bluish to light gray dolomite, trace of marcasite.
Mixture of light gray dolomite, bluish chalcedonic flint and some marcasite.
Light gray dolomite.
Fine particles grayish, silicious dolomite, some marcasite, small amount chert.
Fine particles mixture of light gray dolomite, white chalcedonic chert, some marcasite, trace of sand.
Mixture of quartzite, sand-grains, silicious dolomite, marcasite, white chert.
Mixture silicious dolomite, white and chalcedonic flint, some marcasite.
Highly silicious, compact dolomite, some grains sandstone and zinc.
Coarse crystalline dolomite, some sand.
Fine, light gray to white dolomite (cotton rock).
Fine, compact, light-gray dolomite, 10% chert or quartzite.
Light gray to white dolomite, 5% blue to brown shale.
Light gray white silicious dolomite, large particles, no chert.
Very fine sand-like translucent dolomite.
Coarser-grained, light gray to white silicious dolomite, traces chalcedonic chert.
Gray silicious dolomite, 5% white chert.

400-410 feet
410-420 feet
420-430 feet
430-440 feet

440-445 feet
445-450 feet
450-460 feet
460-470 feet
470-480 feet
480-490 feet
490-500 feet
500-510 feet

510-515 feet
515-520 feet
520-530 feet
530-535 feet
535-540 feet
540-550 feet
550-555 feet
555-560 feet
560-565 feet
565-575 feet
575-580 feet
580-590 feet
590-595 feet
596-600 feet

Gray to white silicious dolomite, 10% white chert.
Gray silicious dolomite, 5% milk-white chert.
Dark gray silicious dolomite, 2% white chert.
Dark gray silicious dolomite, trace of glass-like quartz and granular chert.
Mixture gray to white silicious dolomite, 5% shaly white chert.
Light gray to white silicious dolomite, trace iron pyrites.
Gray silicious dolomite, 10% white chert.
Gray silicious dolomite, translucent white chert.
Dark gray silicious dolomite, 20% white chert.
Fine, pinkish sandstone, 10% quartzite.
Very fine reddish sandstone, Roubidoux s. s.
Honey-combed or pitted brown silicious dolomite and sandstone, 10% chert.
Very fine brown sandstone, rounded to angular grains.
Very fine pellucid sandstone, rounded to angular grains.
Chalcedonic to white quartzite and chert, some s. s.
Mixture of above, smaller particles, 20% silicious dolomite.
Mixture of above, with sandstone, quartzite and silicious dolomite.
Fine sandy pellucid silicious dolomite.
Dark gray silicious dolomite, white quartzite, translucent sandstone.
Brownish- silicious dolomite, some quartzite.
Light gray chalcedonic quartzite, some sandstone.
Fine-grained, light brown pellucid sandstone.
Fine-grained sand and quartzite, trace chert.
Fine-grained sandstone and quartzite, trace chert.
Fine-grained chalcedonic quartzite, some oölite.
Fine-grained chalcedonic quartzite, 20% s. s., some dolomite.

600-618 feet
618-622 feet

622-627 feet
627-660 feet
660-670 feet
670-700 feet
700-710 feet
710-720 feet
720-725 feet
725-727 feet
727-737 feet
737-747 feet
747-757 feet
757-765 feet
765-772 feet
772-780 feet
780-790 feet
790-800 feet

Fine-grained grayish dolomite, some quartzite.
Fine-grained, reddish-brown silicious dolomite, 10% white chert, trace iron.
Light brown, fine-grained silicious dolomite, 10% white chert.
Light gray sandy silicious dolomite, some sandstone.
Light brown compact silicious dolomite.
Light gray compact silicious dolomite.
Light brown silicious dolomite, some chalcedonic chert.
Gray silicious dolomite, some sand and white chert.
Highly crystalline silicious dolomite, some white chert.
Same, plus 20% blue chalcedonic flint.
Same, with small amount of flint.
Light gray crystalline dolomite limestone, trace of flint.
Same, plus 15% bluish chalcedonic flint.
Same, plus 10% bluish chalcedonic flint.
Same, plus 5% bluish chalcedonic flint.
Brownish silicious dolomite, 10% white chert, 1% quartzite.
Light gray silicious dolomite, 5% chalcedonic chert.
Coarser particles of gray silicious dolomite, 30% chalcedonic flint and white chert

800-810 feet
810-820 feet
820-830 feet

830-840 feet
840-865 feet
865-875 feet
875-885 feet
885-910 feet
910-920 feet
920-930 feet
930-940 feet
940-950 feet
950-994 feet

994-1000 feet

Light brown silicious dolomite, 15% chalcedonic flint and white chert.
Light gray silicious dolomite, 20% white chert and quartzite.
Light gray silicious dolomite, fine-grained, 10% white chert and quartzite.
Fine-grained, sandy dolomite, quartzite and foetid sandstone.
Fine-grained sandy dolomite, foetid limestone, quartzite and sand.
Fine-grained, dolomite, foetid limestone, quartzite and sand.
Fine-grained pellucid dolomite.
Fine-grained pellucid dolomite, trace chert and sand.
Same as above, with trace of quartzite.
Gray granular silicious dolomite, some chert.
Mainly chert, quartzite, 10% silicious lime, trace of sand.
Fine particles grayish dolomite, 10% chert.
White, medium coarse, translucent to transparent, angular to rounded grains of quartz sand
Plain bluish quartzite sands, some dolomite.

1000-1020 feet
1020-1040 feet
1040-1060 feet
1060-1090 feet
1090-1100 feet
1100-1105 feet
1105-1110 feet
1110-1115 feet
1115-1120 feet

1120-1125 feet
1125-1130 feet
1130-1140 feet
1140-1146 feet

1146-1150 feet
1150-1155 feet

1155-1160 feet

1160-1165 feet
1165-1170 feet
1170-1180 feet
1180-1200 feet

Granular, bluish gray, translucent, silicious dolomite.
Fine-grained to compact magnesian limestone (cotton rock).
Milk-white cotton rock, slightly silicious.
Silk-white cotton rock, slightly silicious.
Minutely crystalline white silicious limestone (cotton rock).
Finely granular or compact white silicious magnesian limestone.
Minutely granular white silicious magnesian limestone, dolomite.
Compact cotton-rock, minute translucent white silicious particles dolomite.
Same as above, but less compact.
Same as above, but very fine-grained.
Same as above, but very fine-trained and slightly oölitic
Silicious magnesian limestone (cotton-rock), white and minutely crystalline.
Same as above, but more compact.
Very compact minutely crystalline dolomitic magnesian limestone (cotton-rock).
Coarser-grained translucent dolomitic magnesian limestone (cotton-rock).
Same as above, but more silicious.
Soft, compact dolomitic magnesian limestone (cotton-rock).
Same as above, but minutely crystalline.

1200-1210 feet
1210-1220 feet
1220-1230 feet
1230-1240 feet
1240-1250 feet
1250-1260 feet

1260-1265 feet
1265-1270 feet
1270-1285 feet
1285-1290 feet
1290-1300 feet
1300-1310 feet
1310-1316 feet
1316-1320 feet
1320-1325 feet
1325-1330 feet

1330-1335 feet
1335-1340 feet
1340-1350 feet
1350-1356 feet

1356-1360 feet

1360-1365 feet

1365-1370 feet
1370-1376 feet
1376-1380 feet
1390-1395 feet

1393-1404½ feet

Same as above, chalky.
Same as above, but more granular and silicious.
Soft magnesian limestone (cotton-rock).
Soft, compact white magnesian limestone (cotton-rock).
Soft, compact white magnesian limestone, chalk-like. (Several ¼-inch openings or crevices at this level and drillings difficult to obtain.)
Light grayish, fine-grained dolomitic limestone.
Milk-white, chalk-like magnesian limestone (cotton-rock).
Light gray fine-grained silicious rnagnesian lime-stone.
Same as above, but slightly darker gray.
Light gray compact chalky magnesian limestone.
Chalk-like light gray dolomitic limestone (cotton-rock).
Chalk-like white gray dolomitic limestone.
Light brown, translucent silicious dolomitic limestone.
Gray fine-grained silicious dolomitic limestone.
Very dark brown silicious rnagnesian limestone, 20% nearly black granulated limestone.
Same, with 80% light brown granular silicious limestone.
Same as above, but finer-grained.
Same as above, but coarser-grained.
Dark brown silicious limestone, composed of a few very dark particles, scattered through the lighter brown material.
Very dark silicious magnesian limestone, with a few red particles and 10% black granules--probably chert.
Dark brown silicious magnesian limestone, crystalline, with some darker particles.
Same as above.
Same as above, except darker.
Same as above, except coarser and darker, with more dark particles.
Coarser, pitted impure magnesian limestone, with a mixture of irregularly disseminated darker or lighter particles, a structure producing the differential weathering of honeycomb structure seen wherever this rock appears on the surface.
The same as above, but with more black particles.

 It is noticed that the Gunter sandstone, the Decaturville, or Proctor limestone and the Bonne Terre formations were not described in the enumeration of the geological formations of Greene county. This is because they are nowhere exposed at the surface within the limits of the county, and they have been reached, in drilling, for the first time in this well. The Gunter sandstone is a white saccharoidal sandstone, with grains that are somewhat coarse, angular to rounded in shape, loosely coherent, and translucent to transparent in color. The Decaturville, or Proctor, limestone varies in the state from 60 to 100 feet in thickness, and is the highest non-cherty formation of the Cambro-Ordovician series of rocks. It is composed, largely, of a granular, bluish-gray, translucent, silicious dolomite.1

The beds from 1114 feet to the bottom of the well, 1404 ½, the writer has doubtfully correlated as belonging to the Bonne Terre formation. They are largely made up of soft, white "cotton-rock," merging into a darker gray, silicious dolomitic limestone. The very small amount of chert or flint would seem to indicate the Bonne Terre, rather than the Potosi formation, which has a larger quantity of chert.

It is very difficult to accurately differentiate these lowest beds, with only the drillings as a guide, since they are so far removed from any surface exposures. [84]

1 For fuller description of these formations, see "Underground Waters of Missouri," Edward M. Shepard, U. S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Bulletin No. 195.

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